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Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296 - 1316)

April 16, 2021

Alauddin Khalji was Jalaluddin’s ambitious nephew and son-in-law. He had helped his uncle in his struggle for power and was appointed as Amir-i-Tuzuk (Master of Ceremonies). Alauddin had two victorious expeditions during the reign of Jalaluddin.

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Issues in Agricultural Development

April 15, 2021

Agriculture contributes a significant share to the national income (26%) but more importantly it is a major source of livelihood for majority of work force in the countryside.

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Jalaluddin Khalji (AD 1290 - 1296)

April 15, 2021

Jalaluddin Khalji laid the foundation of the Khalji dynasty. He ascended the throne at the age of 70 years. Although Jalaluddin retained the earlier nobility in his administration, but the rise of Khaljis to power ended the monopoly of nobility of slaves to high offices.

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Cropping Patterns

April 14, 2021

The agricultural land devoted to different crops in a region or state or country at a particular point of time is called the cropping pattern. The cropping pattern of a region is an outcome of a long term agricultural practices, social customs and traditions, physical conditions and historical factors.

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Balban (AD 1266 - 1287)

April 14, 2021

The struggle between the sultan and the Turkish nobles continued, till one of the Turkish chiefs, Ulugh Khan, known in history by the name of Balban, gradually arrogated all power to himself and finally ascended the throne in AD 1266.

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Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246 - 1266 AD)

April 13, 2021

The struggle for power between Sultan and the Turkish Chiefs "Chahalgani" which began during the reign of Raziya continued. After Raziya’s death, the power of Chahalgani increased and they became largely responsible for making and unmaking of kings.

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Beginner's Guide to Indian Geography (Part 2)

April 13, 2021

The second part covers Minerals and Energy Resources, Industries, Transport and Population in India.

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Agro Climatic Regions of India

April 13, 2021

India has diverse agro-climatic conditions. It has almost all types of climatic conditions, capable of producing almost all kinds of agricultural produce in one or the other region.

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Raziya (AD 1236 - 1240)

April 12, 2021

The problem of successor troubled Iltutmish during his last days. Iltutmish did not consider any of his sons worthy of the throne. His own choice was his daughter Raziya hence he nominated her as his successor.

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Floriculture

April 12, 2021

With breaking of trade barriers in post-globalisation phase, international trade in vegetables, fruits and flowers has become lucrative. India can earn a sizable amount of foreign exchange by exporting flowers.

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Iltutmish (AD 1210 - 1236)

April 11, 2021

In AD 1210, Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while playing chaugan (Polo). After his death a few amirs raised his son Aram Shah to the throne in Lahore. But Aram Shah was incapable ruler and the Turkish amirs opposed him. The Turkish chiefs of Delhi invited the governor of Badayun (son-in-law of Qutbuddin Aibak) "Iltutmish" to come to Delhi.

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Vegetables

April 11, 2021

India is the second largest producer of vegetables in the world next only to China. It contributes about 13 per cent to the world vegetable production. It occupies first position in the production of cauliflowers, second in onion, and third in cabbage in the world.

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Qutbuddin Aibak (AD 1206 - 1210)

April 10, 2021

With Qutbuddin Aibak, begins the period of Mamluk Sultans or the slave dynasty. Mamluk is an Arabic word meaning "owned". It was used to distinguish the imported Turkish slaves meant for military service from the lower slaves used as domestic labour or artisan.

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Fruits

April 10, 2021

India accounts for about 10 per cent of the production of fruits in the world. It leads the world in the production of mango, banana, sapota and lemons. A large variety of fruits are grown in India.

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Muhammad Ghori (Shahabuddin Muhammad)

April 09, 2021

In AD 1173 Shahabuddin Muhammad (AD 1173 - 1206) also called Muhammad of Ghor ascended the throne of Ghazni. The Ghoris were not strong enough to meet the growing power and strength of the Khwarizmi Empire; they realised that they could gain nothing in Central Asia.

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Spices

April 09, 2021

India produces a wide variety of spices including black pepper, cardamom, chillies, turmeric, ginger, cloves, etc. Indian spices are known for their quality and find a market all over the world.

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Mahmud Ghazni

April 08, 2021

In all Mahmud Ghazni invaded India 17 times during AD 1000 - 1026. Mahmud Ghazni was Son of Sabuktigin, the founder of Ghazni dynasty & Turkish slave commander.

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Sugarcane

April 08, 2021

Sugarcane is the native plant of India. The country has the largest area under this crop in the world. It requires a hot and humid climate. Irrigation facility is required if rainfall is not enough.

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Arab Invasion of India

April 07, 2021

In the early 8th century Arabs invaded India from the North-West region. This Arab invasion in AD 712 was led by Muhammad Bin Qasim a general of the Umayyad caliphate. Invasion on India was part of the policy of Arab expansion during this period.

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Sustainable Development

April 07, 2021

Sustainable development is development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

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Cotton

April 07, 2021

India is one of the leading cotton producing countries in the world. The fibre of the cotton crop is used as raw material for the textile industries whereas oil extracted from its seeds is used in the vanaspati industry. Cotton seeds are also used as a cattle feed.

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Delhi Sultanate

April 06, 2021

The rulers who ruled substantial parts of the North India between AD 1200 to AD 1526 were termed as Sultans and the period of their rule as the Delhi Sultanate. These rulers were of Turkish and Afghan origin. They established their rule in India after defeating the Indian ruling dynasties which were mainly Rajputs in northern India.

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Economic Growth vs Economic Development

April 06, 2021

Economic growth refers to an increase in the real output of goods and services in the country. Economic development implies changes in income, savings and investment along with progressive changes in socio-economic structure of country (institutional and technological changes).

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Tea

April 06, 2021

India is the leading producer and consumer of tea in the world. The country earns a sizable amount of foreign exchange through export of tea.

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