To function properly, the computer needs both hardware and software. Hardware consists of the mechanical and electronic devices, which we can see and touch. The software consists of programs, the operating system and the data that reside in the memory and storage devices.
The basic concept of electrostatics and frictional electricity is described in this unit. This unit includes the electric field and electric potential due to a point charge; different types of capacitors, their combinations and applications; the electric current and thermal and magnetic effects of current; significance of magnetic effect of current and electromagnetic induction; generation and transmission of current power and the problems of low voltage and load shedding.
This unit covers the diverse methods of reproduction in living beings from unicellular organisms to complex forms including humans; the increase in human population all over the world; the methods of family planning and birth control. The principles and mechanisms of heredity in determining the characteristics of organism has also been discussed in this unit.
Algebra is the study of mathematical symbols and the rules for manipulating these symbols. Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them - addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
C++ is an extension to C Programming language. It was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a deviation from traditional procedural languages in the sense that it follows Object Oriented Programming (OOP) approach which is quite suitable for managing large and complex programs.
This unit includes a brief introduction of reflection of light, the basic concepts like refraction, total internal reflection, dispersion, scattering of light. The wave properties of light like interference, diffraction and polarization are also described in a qualitative manner.
There was transformation of European Society after the downfall of the Roman Empire, and the birth of a new religion called Islam which led to the founding of a vast empire that originated in West Asia and spread out over a large part of the world. The Medieval Period is also called the Middle Age. The period which succeeded the ancient period and come before the Modern Period.
Accounting is the language of business. It helps the business not only in finding out profits and losses for a period and its financial position on a particular date but also helps in management of business. It has its own well designed and established principles which are guided by some concepts and conventions.
This unit includes the importance of universal standard units of measurement, applications of dimensions and vectors in the study of physics. The physics scope, need of measurement, concept of motion and rest, cause of motion and different types of motion are also included with the help of daily life examples. Significance of gravitation, concept of work and energy are also highlighted. The basics of the motion of a rigid body and the significance of rotational motion in day to day life have been explained.
With the decline of feudalism, the restrictions on peasants become a thing of the past simultaneously, the period witnessed the rise of powerful merchant class, which financed discoveries of new lands. These, with other factors, brought about the Industrial revolution which led a sea change throughout the world. This was the be beginning of the Modern Age.
Semiconductors find a very significant place in almost all the electronic devices. This unit includes the basis of semiconductors, different types of semiconductor devices and their applications. In the present age of information and communication technology, it is essential for all to know the basic of electronics and communication technology. Working principles of communication systems, the communication techniques and media used in daily life have been explained.
We all live in a very vast and complex business environment. Whether we are poor or rich, the business activities around us have made our lives easy by fulfilling our basic needs and also improving our standard of living. Today’s business activities are changing at a faster speed because of the advancement of science and technology and better communication system.
The history of ancient India is largely a history of culture. Tribes forms societies and societies became civilizations with rich Cultural Heritage and a well organised system of governance. Pastoral society of the early vedic age got transformed into settled Agrarian society in the later vedic period.
Discovery of metal led to human civilisation becoming highly evolved. Copper was the first metal used by human beings. The cultures based on use of both copper and stone are called Chalcolithic Cultures. An alloy of copper and tin (bronze) replaced stone, wood and bones to some extent for making weapons and implements. Town based civilisations came up for first time in Mesopotamia, Egypt, India and China.
This unit includes the origin of life on earth and the vast diversity in the living world, and also to group them together at various classification levels. It also includes the concepts and theories of evolution; the cell as the basic unit of life and its organization into various forms of tissues.
English has become an integral part of our social and professional life. The rise of electronic media and communication technology has turned the world into a global village. In order to be able to keep in touch with the developments taking place in other parts of the world, we need English.
Military Studies is also known by various names like defence and strategic studies, military science, war and national security studies, war and strategic studies. The importance of having strong armed forces and the need to protect the people against various threats is a constant feature of our life. Knowledge of military security, how armed forces are organised to fight a war and what is the art of warfare are questions, which get answered by studying military studies.
Organic chemistry is the study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation of carbon-containing compounds, which include not only hydrocarbons but also compounds with any number of other elements, including hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, halogens, phosphorus, silicon, and sulfur.