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Communicable Diseases

September 24, 2021

Communicable diseases spread from one person to another by the entry of pathogens (disease causing organisms). Pathogens enter our body through various means, and then multiply there. They can be transferred from one person to another by direct or indirect contact.

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Acid Rain

September 23, 2021

Acid rain is caused when nitrogen oxides, SO2 and particulate matter in the atmosphere react with H2O to produce acids. Acid rain is harmful to the environment. It affects life in water and on land. The fish cannot survive in acidic water below pH 4.5. It can also damage trees in the forests.

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Photochemical Smog

September 22, 2021

Pollutants like sulphur dioxide which is released while burning sulphur containing fuel and particulate matter like soot present in stagnant air masses, get modified in sunlight and form a sheet called photochemical smog.

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Global Warming: Greenhouse Effect

September 21, 2021

Greenhouse is referred to as a chamber where plants are grown in a closed warm environment as compared to the outside temperature. This is normally practised in cold region of the hills. The solar radiations bringing heat (in the form of infra-red rays from the sun) are trapped inside the chamber.

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Depletion of Ozone Layer (Ozone Hole)

September 20, 2021

The ozone layer present in the earth's atmosphere prevents the entry of sun's harmful ultraviolet (UV) radiations reaching the Earth's surface. Industrial use of chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in refrigeration, air conditioning, cleaning solvents, fire extinguishers and aerosols (spray cans of perfumes, insecticides, medicines) damage the ozone layer.

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Waste and its Management

September 19, 2021

Anything which is unwanted or useless is termed as waste. The waste generated from various sources can be categorized into two types: Biodegradable waste and Non-biodegradable waste.

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September 18, 2021

Any undesirable change in the environment due to human activity is pollution. Each activity, human or industrial, discharges some unwanted substances in the environment. The presence of unwanted substances in a concentration which can have an adverse effect on organisms and environment is called pollution.

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September 17, 2021

Cutting of the natural forest cover is called deforestation. Forests are being cut for various purposes, such as for growing crops and grazing cattle, meeting the demand of wood and paper.

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September 16, 2021

Landslide is often accompanied by cloudburst. A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation, sometimes with hailstorms and thunderstorms. It occurs for few minutes and can create flood conditions which often results in landslides.

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September 15, 2021

In monsoon, massive landslides occur in the hilly regions leading to blockage of roads. A landslide is the gravitational movement of a mass of rock, earth or debris down a slope. It occurs when a hilly slope becomes unstable.

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September 14, 2021

The word Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning ‘Harbor wave’. It involves the displacement of very large quantities of water due to earthquakes, landslides or volcanic eruptions.

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Forest Fires

September 13, 2021

From prehistoric times, forests and fire have remained inseparable. The temperate world’s forest ecosystem has been re-generated and rejuvenated with active help of forest fires.

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September 12, 2021

Earthquake is a common phenomenon. It is the shaking, rolling or sudden shock of the earth’s surface. The intensity of earthquake is related to the amount of energy released when rocks give way to the forces within the earth. It is measured with the help of an instrument known as seismograph. The intensity of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale.

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September 11, 2021

India has a long coastline, which is vulnerable to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The Bay of Bengal region is frequently battered by storms and cyclones.

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September 10, 2021

India being a country of many rivers and with tropical climate is one of the most flood-prone countries of the world. Floods are frequent because most of the rivers are full of water during monsoons.

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Natural and Manmade Disasters

September 09, 2021

Environmental problems arise both due to natural processes and human activities. These problems adversely affect human and other forms of life.

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Population Interaction

September 08, 2021

All living organisms are interdependent, otherwise it would be difficult to live together in a population.

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Adaptations in Organisms

September 07, 2021

Adaptations are special features that allow a plant or animal to live in a particular place or habitat.

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Biogeochemical or Nutrient Cycles

September 06, 2021

There is a constant need of nutrients by the biotic community for their survival and they take these from the environment. Nutrients in the form of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulphur or water exists in a definite amount in the environment.

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Energy Flow in Ecosystem

September 05, 2021

Food provides energy and thus in a food chain, energy is passed from one link to another. This energy flow is unidirectional - the energy which is transferred from one trophic level to the next does not come back.

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Food Chain and Food Web

September 04, 2021

A simple food chain basically consists of producers, herbivores and carnivores. For example, small fish feeds on phytoplanktons which in turn is being eaten by a bigger fish. This constitutes the food chain.

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Biotic Community

September 03, 2021

Biotic community refers to populations of various kinds of organisms living together and sharing the same habitat. An ecosystem houses several biotic communities which interact with each other.

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Ecosystem and its Components

September 02, 2021

All living and non-living things that occur naturally on the earth constitute the natural environment. All living organisms are dependent on the environment for their survival. Their life is regulated by the environment and in turn they influence the environment.

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Carboxylic Acids

September 01, 2021

Carboxylic acids contain the carboxyl (-COOH) functional group. Their general formula is R-COOH. Vinegar which is also called acetic acid has the formula CH3COOH.

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