Carbon is the 12th element found in abundant quantities in the Earth's upper layer (surface). In nature it is found in both independent and combined states.

On the surface of the earth, it is found independently in the form of coal, diamonds and graphite. It is present in combined form as compounds and through the form of nature in petroleum. Carbon is such a wonderful element, which is present in millions of types of compounds. 

Carbon is a non-metal. Non-metal is the element whose oxides dissolve in water to form acids.

Wood Charcoal

This type of coal can be obtained from wood, sugar and bones. Coal is formed when these substances are heated in the absence of air. Coal obtained from wood is called lump charcoal, coal obtained from sugar is sugar charcoal, and coal obtained from animal bones is bones charcoal. They all have different qualities.

1. Lump Coal - It is a black perforated solid. It absorbs gases so it is used to make gas masks.

2. Bone Charcoal - This color remains. It is used to remove the brown color of sugar and make it white when making sugar from sugarcane.

3. Sugar Charcoal - This is the most pure form of carbon. It is mainly used to derive metals from their oxides.

Sugar charcoal can be obtained by removing water from sugar. 


Coke is obtained by heating coal in the absence of air. During this process, the black residue remains. It is a good fuel compared to coal. Because it does not emit smoke on burning. It is used to obtain metals from metal oxides.

Kajal (black like carbon)

The carbon that gathers after the flame of smoke is called kajal (carbon soot). A few years ago the practice of burning kerosene oil in lamps was common. When we burn kerosene, a lot of black smoke gets collected on the glass chimney of the lamp. This kajal or soot is used to make printer ink, carbon paper, shoe polish and black paint (coal-tar). It is also used to make filters in the rubber tires of buses and tractors. 


Coal is a fossil fuel. In ancient times, coal has been formed millions of years after the big trees and plants were buried in the earth. Due to high pressure and high temperature inside the earth, coal was slowly formed from the plant.

This coal is hard and black solid. It mainly consists of carbon. Apart from carbon, it also contains many other compound substances. Hydrogen and Oxygen is also there. Coal is used in homes and industries.