Arithmetic is a branch of mathematics, that involves the study of numbers, operation of numbers that are useful in all the other branches of mathematics. It basically comprises of operations such as Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division.

Basic Operations

1. Addition

Addition is denoted by ‘+’ sign. It involves combining two or more numbers into a single term. It can involve any type of number whether it be a real or complex number, fraction or decimals.

For example, 4.13 + 3.87 = 8

The addition of more than two numbers, values or terms is also known as summation of terms and can involve n number of values.

2. Subtraction

Subtraction is denoted by ‘-‘ sign. It is almost similar to addition but is the conjugate of the second term. The addition of term with the negative term is known as subtraction.

For example, 15 – 7 = 8

The term can also be re-written as 15 + (-7). Adding terms, we get, 8.

3. Multiplication

Multiplication is denoted by ‘\(\times\)‘ or  by ‘*’. It also combines with the two or more values to result into one a single value.

Product of two numbers, say ‘a’ and ‘b’ result in a single value term ‘ab,‘ where a and b are the factors of the final value obtained.

4. Division

Division is usually denoted by ‘\(\div\) or /‘ and is the inverse of multiplication. It constitutes two terms, dividend and divisor, where dividend is divided by divisor to give a single term value.

When the dividend is greater than the divisor, the result obtained is greater than 1, or else it would be less than 1.