Business is mainly concerned with the financial activities. In order to ascertain the financial status of the business every enterprise prepares certain statements, known as financial statements. Financial statements are mainly prepared for decision making purposes. But the information as provided in the financial statements is not adequately helpful in drawing a meaningful conclusion. Thus, an effective analysis and interpretation of financial statements is required.
Analysis means establishing a meaningful relationship between various items of the two financial statements with each other in such a way that a conclusion is drawn. It determines financial strength and weaknesses of the firm. Analysis of financial statements is an attempt to assess the efficiency and performance of an enterprise. Thus, the analysis and interpretation of financial statements is very essential to measure the efficiency, profitability, financial soundness and future prospects of the business units.
Purpose of Financial Analysis
1. Measuring the Profitability
The main objective of a business is to earn a satisfactory return on the funds invested in it. Financial analysis helps in ascertaining whether adequate profits are being earned on the capital invested in the business or not. It also helps in knowing the capacity to pay the interest and dividend.
2. Indicating the Trend of Achievements
Financial statements of the previous years can be compared and the trend regarding various expenses, purchases, sales, gross profits and net profit, etc. can be ascertained. Value of assets and liabilities can be compared and the future prospects of the business can be envisaged.
3. Assessing the Growth Potential of the Business
The trend and other analysis of the business provides sufficient information indicating the growth potential of the business.
4. Comparative Position in Relation to Other Firms
The purpose of financial statements analysis is to help the management to make a comparative study of the profitability of various firms engaged in similar businesses. Such comparison also helps the management to study the position of their firm in respect of sales, expenses, profitability and utilizing capital, etc.
5. Assess overall financial strength
The purpose of financial analysis is to assess the financial strength of the business. Analysis also helps in taking decisions, whether funds required for the purchase of new machines and equipments are provided from internal sources of the business or not if yes, how much? And also to assess how much funds have been received from external sources.
6. Assess solvency of the firm
The different tools of an analysis tell us whether the firm has sufficient funds to meet its short term and long term liabilities or not.
Limitations of Financial Analysis
Financial analysis helps the interested parties to make an assessment of the earning capacity and financial soundness of a business enterprise. But such analysis has its own limitations.
1. Limitations of Financial Statements
Financial analysis is based on financial statements. But financial statements themselves suffer from certain limitations, hence the limitations of financial statements are also the limitations of their analysis. For example, (a) sometimes the information given in financial statements are incomplete and not authentic, (b) financial Statements are based on accounting concepts and conventions. As such, the utility of financial analysis is decreased due to the shortcomings of financial statements.
2. Affected by Window-dressing
Some firms resort to window-dressing their financial statements to cover up bad financial position on the eve of accounting date. For example, they may not record the purchases made at the end of the year or they may overvalue their closing stock. In such cases, the results obtained by analysis of financial statements will be misleading.
3. Different Accounting Policies
If two firms adopt different accounting policies, the comparison between the two will be unreliable. For example, one firm may provide depreciation on original cost method, whereas the other firm may adopt the written-down value method for providing the depreciation. Similarly, the method of valuation of closing stock may also differ from one firm to another. The results obtained from the comparison of the financial statements of such firms may give misleading picture.
4. Difficulty in Forecasting
Financial statements are a record of past events and historical facts. In the fast changing and developing modern business, the analysis of past information may not be of much use in future forecasting. Continuous changes take place in the demand of the product, policies adopted by the firm, the position of competition, etc. As such, no estimate based on the analysis of historical facts can be made for future.
5. Lack of Qualitative Analysis
Financial statements record only those events and transactions which can be expressed in terms of money. Qualitative aspects of business units are omitted from the books at all as these cannot be expressed in monetary terms. Thus, changes in management, reputation of the business, cordial management-labour relations, firm’s ability to develop new products, efficiency of management, satisfaction of firm’s customers, etc. which have a vital bearing on the profitability of the company are all ignored and omitted from being recorded because all of these are qualitative in nature.
6. Limited Use of Single Year’s Analysis of Financial Statements
Results obtained from financial analysis assume significance only when compared with the figures of previous periods. For example, the profit of a firm to sales is 12%, whether this is satisfactory or not, will depend upon the figures of previous years. If the firm earned 10% of sales as profit in the previous year, it may be considered to have done better this year. However, the financial statements of two years may not be comparable due to the changes in accounting policies.