A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. it is the most important word in a sentence. A Verb tell what a person or thing does, what is done to a person or thing, what a person or thing is.
A Transitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which passes over from the doer or Subject to an object.
An Intransitive Verb is a Verb that denotes an action which does not pass over to an object, or which expresses a state or being.
A verb is in the Active Voice when its form shows that the person or thing denoted by the Subject does something.
A Verb is in the Passive Voice when its form shows that something is done to the person or thing denoted by the Subject.
Different modes or manners in which a Verb may be used to express an action are called Moods.
There are three Moods in English - Indicative, Imperative, Subjunctive.
The Tense of a Verb shows the time of an action or event. Tense of a verb also shows the state of an action referred to.
A Verb may refer to present time, past time, or to future time.
A Verb that refers to present time is said to be in the Present Tense. A Verb that refers to past time is said to be in the Past Tense. A Verb that refers to future time is said to be in the Future Tense.
English verbs are divided into three groups - Normal Verbs, Non-Continuous Verbs, and Mixed Verbs.
Most verbs are "Normal Verbs". These verbs are usually physical actions which you can see somebody doing. These verbs can be used in all tenses.
These verbs are usually things you cannot see somebody doing. These verbs are not used in continuous tenses. The following verbs, on account of their meaning, are not normally used in the continuous form:
These verbs have more than one meaning. In a way, each meaning is a unique verb. Some meanings behave like "Non-Continuous Verbs" while other meanings behave like "Normal Verbs". Examples: to appear, to feel, to have, to hear, to look, to see, to weigh.
Form: Verb + s/es in third person
Use #1: To express a habitual or repeated action
Use #2: To express general truths, facts or generalizations
Use #3: To express a future event that is scheduled in near future
Use #4: To express continuation (Now) with Non-Continuous Verbs
Form: am/is/are + present participle
Use #1: For an action going on at the time of speaking (with normal verbs)
Use #2: For a temporary action (longer actions) which may not be actually happening at the time of speaking.
Use #3: For an action that has already been arranged to take place in the near future
Use #4: Repetition and Irritation with "Always"
Form: has/have + past participle
Use #1: To express past actions whose time is not given and not definite (unspecified time)
Use #2: To denote an action beginning at some time in the past continuing up to the present moment (Non-Continuous Verbs)
Use #3: To indicate completed activities in the immediate past (with just)
Use #4: To denote that an action has been completed very recently
Present Perfect Continuous
Form: has/have + been + present participle
Use #1: For an action which began at some time in the past and is still continuing
Use #2: For an action that has already taken place but whose effect is still there
The negative is formed by placing "not" after has/have.
Form: Second form of verb; Verb + ed or irregular verbs
Use #1: To indicate an action completed in the past at specified time.
It often occurs with adverbs or adverb phrases of past time. Sometimes this tense is used without an adverb of time. In such cases the time may be either implied or indicated by the context.
Use #2: For duration in past that starts and stops in the past
Use #3: For past habits
Use #4: Past facts or generalizations which are no longer true
No helping verb (was, were, had) is used in the simple past tense. The negative of both regular and irregular verbs that are used in past tense is formed with did not + verb without changing the form of the verb. The Interrogative is formed by changing the position of "did" and placing it before the subject. The main verb does not change its form.
Form: was/were + present participle
Use #1: To indicate that a longer action in the past was interrupted by a shorter action.
Use #2: To denote an action going on at some specific time in the past.
Use #3: Parallel actions to express the idea that two actions were happening at the same time.
Use #4: Repetition and irritation with "Always" that happened in the past.
Form: had + past participle; had + third form of verb
Use #1: To describes an action completed before a certain moment in the past.
Use #2: Duration in the past with non-continuous verb to show something started in the past and continued up until another action in the past.
If two actions happened in the past, it may be necessary to show which action happened earlier than the other. The Past Perfect is mainly used in such situations. The Simple Past is used in one clause and the Past Perfect in the other. Such verbs (action words) which tell us that an action was completed sometime in the past, before another action also in the past, are said to be in the past perfect tense.
In the case of actions/events that were completed first, the past perfect tense (i.e. had + the 3rd form of the verb) is used. In the case of actions/events that were completed later in the past, the simple past tense (i.e. the 2nd form of the verb) is used.
Past Perfect Continuous
Form: had been + present participle
Use #1: For duration of action that began before a certain point in the past and continued up to that time.
The negative is formed by placing "not" after had.
Simple Future has two different forms in English: "will" and "be going to". Although the two forms can sometimes be used interchangeably, they often express two very different meanings.
Form: will + verb ; am/is/are + going to + verb
Use #1: To talk about things which we cannot control. It expresses the future as fact.
Use #2: To talk about what we think or believe will happen in the future (prediction).
Use #3: To do something at the time of speaking.
Use #4: We use the going to form when we have decided to do something before talking about it (to express a plan).
If the action is already decided upon and preparations have been made, you should use the going to form, not the Simple Future Tense. The Simple Future Tense is used for an instant decision.
Form: will be + present participle
Use #1: To indicate that a longer action in the future will be interrupted by a shorter action.
Use #2: To talk about actions which will be in progress at a specific time in the future.
Use #3: Parallel actions to express the idea that two actions will be happening at the same time.
Form: will have + past participle
Use #1: To talk about actions that will be completed by a certain future action or time.
Use #2: For duration of action (non-continuous verb) that will continue up until another action in the future.
Future Perfect Continuous
Form: will have been + present participle
Use #1: For actions which will be in progress over a period of time that will end in the future.
Future in the Past
Form: would + verb ; was/were + going to + verb
Use #1: To express the idea that in the past you thought something would happen in the future. It does not matter if you are correct or not.
The Verb, like the Personal Pronouns, has three Persons - the First, the Second and the Third.
The Verb like the Noun and the Pronoun, has two Numbers the Singular and the Plural.
The Verb must agree with its Subject in Number and Person; that is, the Verb must be of the same Number and Person as its Subject. Thus, if the Subject is of the Singular Number, First Person, the Verb must be of the Singular Number, First Person.
A participle is that form of the Verb which partakes of the nature both of a Verb and of an Adjective.
Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb. The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. For example,
Form: to + verb
Infinitive is a kind of noun with certain features of the verb, especially that of taking an object (when the verb is Transitive) and adverbial qualifiers. In short, the Infinitive is a Verb-Noun.
A gerund is a noun made from a verb by adding "-ing." The gerund form of the verb "read" is "reading". You can use a gerund as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence. For example,
Both gerunds and infinitives can be used as the subject or the complement of a sentence. However, as subjects or complements, gerunds usually sound more like normal, spoken English, whereas infinitives sound more abstract. Most of the time, you will use a gerund as the subject or complement of a sentence.
The verbs be (am, is, was, etc.), have and do, when used with ordinary verbs to make tenses, passive forms, questions and negatives, are called auxiliary (helping) verbs or auxiliaries.
The verbs can, could, may, might, will, would, shall, should, must and ought are called modal verbs or modals. They are used before ordinary verbs and express ability, permission, possibility, order, certainty and necessity.
The modals can, could, may, might, shall, should, will, would, must and ought are termed Defective Verbs, because some parts are wanting in them. They have no -s in the third person singular; they have no infinitive and gerund forms.