Common Respiratory Disorders

Bronchial Asthma

It is an allergic disease caused due to certain foreign substance in the air. It causes difficulty in breathing and coughing because excess mucous secretion may narrow down (clog) the bronchioles. Avoiding exposure to the foreign substance is the best preventive measure.


Inflammation of bronchi caused by infection. It can also be caused by smoking and by exposure to air pollution. Its symptoms are regular coughing with greenish blue sputum. Avoiding exposure to smoke and dust prevents bronchitis.


Acute inflammation caused by diplococcus infection in the alveoli of the lung. It causes fever, pain and severe cough. Most of the air space is occupied by fluid and dead W.B.C. Avoid crowded places where infection is prevalent.


It is a bacterial infection that spreads through droplets of infected persons. It can affect many other organs but pulmonary T.B. is most common. Weight loss and cough are common symptoms. It is accompanied by low fever. In extreme cases blood may come out while coughing. BCG vaccine can prevent T.B. Well-ventilated dwellings and protein rich diet is also essential for T.B. patients.

Occupational Lung Hazards

It is caused due to exposure to harmful substance like silica, asbestos, dust, etc. present in the environment where a person works. It is expressed after exposure of 10-15 years or more. It causes fibrosis of the lungs. Such diseases can be prevented by minimizing the exposure to such substances by using protective masks and clothing. Regular health check-up is necessary.


Emphysema is a respiratory disorder caused by excessive cigarette smoking and chronic bronchitis. Either the bronchioles or the alveolar sacs get distended abnormally in Emphysema resulting in loss of elasticity of these parts. Gradually due to continuous distention, lung increases in size and air remains in lungs even after expiration. Emphysema can be prevented by giving up smoking before damage is done to alveoli. Cure is difficult as elasticity is lost irreversibly.