Complex tissues are mainly of two types:

  1. Xylem
  2. Phloem

Xylem and phloem form a continuous system inside the plants, that is from the roots through the stem and leaves. They are known as vascular tissues and form vascular bundles in roots and stems.


(xylo means wood)

Xylem is a conducting tissue which conducts water and salts upward from roots to leaves. Xylem is composed of

  • (a) Tracheids
  • (b) Vessels
  • (c) Fibres
  • (d) Xylem Parenchyma


Phloem too is a conducting tissue which conducts the metabolites (food) synthesized in the leaves to different parts of the plant. Phloem is composed of

  • (a) Sieve tube element
  • (b) Companion cells
  • (c) Phloem fibre
  • (d) Phloem Parenchyma