1. Malaria

Pathogen: Malarial parasite (different species of Plasmodium)

Mode of transmission: By bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes

Incubation period: Approximately 12 days

Symptoms

  1. Headache, nausea and muscular pain.
  2. Feeling of chilliness and shivering followed by fever which becomes normal along with sweating after some time.
  3. The patient becomes weak and anaemic.
  4. If not treated properly secondary complications may lead to death.

Prevention and cure

  1. Fitting of double door and windows (with wire mesh) in the house to prevent entry of mosquitoes.
  2. Use of mosquito net and mosquito repellents.
  3. No water should be allowed to collect in ditches or other open spaces to prevent mosquito breeding.
  4. Sprinkling of kerosene oil in ditches or other open spaces where water gets collected.
  5. Antimalarial drugs to be taken.

2. Amoebiasis (Amoebic dysentery)

Pathogen: Entamoeba histolytica

Mode of transmission: Contaminated food and water

Symptoms

  1. Formation of ulcers in intestine.
  2. Feeling of abdominal pain and nausea.
  3. Acute diarrhoea and mucus in stool.

Prevention and cure

  1. Proper sanitation should be maintained.
  2. Vegetables and fruits must be properly washed before eating.
  3. Antibiotics may be given to the patients.