Human karyotype is the arrangement of human chromosomes in seven groups according to the types of chromosomes and their size. It is prepared by arranging chromosomes seen at mitotic metaphase in descending order with the longest pair of chromosomes drawn first, and the sex chromosomes are drawn the last.

Total number of chromosomes or 2n = 46 (23 pairs)

Number of autosomes = 44 (22 pairs)

Sex chromosomes = 2 = X and Y

Depending on size, location of centromere, and bands obtained by special staining methods, human chromosomes are grouped into 7 groups, A to G.

Normal male has 22 pairs of autosomes + one X chromosome and one Y chromosome

Normal female has 22 pairs of autosomes + two X chromosomes