Plants are multicellular, eukaryotic, photosynthetic autotrophs rarely heterotrophs having cellulosic cell walls. All are embryophytes. Kingdom Plantae is classified into the following divisions:

  1. Bryophyta: Amphibians of plant kingdom, non-vascular.
  2. Pteridophyta: True root, stem and leaves, vascular tissue present.
  3. Spermatophyta: Seed producing, vascular tissues present.

Spermatophyta are further divided into:

Gymnospermae: naked seeded plants. Seeds not enclosed in an ovary.

Angiospermae: seeds enclosed in the ovary wall. They are divided into:

  • Dicotyledons: embryo with two cotyledons.
  • Monocotyledons: Single cotyledon in the embryo.