1. Anaemia (Iron deficiency)

Iron is important for the formaiton of the respiratory pigment hemoglobin present in blood. Deficiency of iron results in reduction of red blood cells. This reduces the oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

Symptoms: A person suffering from Anaemia becomes pale, tires easily, loses appetite and loses weight.

Cure: This disease can be cured by eating food stuff rich in iron and vitamin B12, like eggs, meat, liver, milk, green leafy vegetables, such as spinach and fruits like apple, banana, guava (Iron tablets and tonics can also supplement the food).

2. Deficiency of Calcium

Calcium is the chief constituent of bones and teeth, regulates heart beat and muscle contraction, helps in the clotting of blood. Calcium metabolism is closely related to that of phosphorus and vitamin D.

Deficiency of calcium causes Rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults.


  1. The bones become soft, get deformed or bend easily
  2. bow legs (bent legs)
  3. pigeon chest
  4. loss of teeth enamel (outer shiny layer in teeth)
  5. tender (soft) bones that tend to fracture easily


  1. softening of bones
  2. pain in bones which tend to fracture easily

Cure: Rickets and osteomalacia can be prevented by giving diet rich in calcium like milk, cod liver oil, egg yolk, and green leafy vegetables.

3. Goitre

Iodine is essential for the synthesis of thyroxine (hormone produced by thyroid gland). Iodine deficiency causes thyroid gland to enlarge and swell, this is called goitre.


  1. protruding eyes
  2. stunted growth
  3. puffy appearance
  4. irregular heart beat
  5. low intelligence

Cure: Use of iodized table salt and eating sea food, and fish.

4. Cretinism

Deficiency of iodine results in another disease called cretinism. The person suffering from cretinism shows stunted growth, retarded mental growth, delayed puberty and low metabolic rate.