Minerals are micronutrients required in varying amounts for proper functioning, normal growth and keeping good health of body. They are inorganic elements, occurring in the form of their salts like calcium, potassium, sodium, phosphorus, iron, etc. They do not supply energy to our body but are essential for protection against diseases and also have role in body functions.
Required in larger amounts
Calcium, Phosphorus, Sodium, Potassium, Sulphur Chloride, Magnesium
Required in trace amounts
Iron, Iodine, Zinc, Chromium, Cobalt, Copper, Fluoride, Manganese, Molybdenum Selenium, and Boron
Functions of Minerals
- Essential for development of bone and teeth. For example, calcium, phosphorus.
- Regulate the fluid balance and acid alkalinity of body fluids. For example, sodium, potassium, chloride.
- Iron is major component of hemoglobin, which helps in transport and release of oxygen.
- Iodine is required for the synthesis of thyroid hormone thyroxine, which regulates the rate of oxidation energy sources within cells.
- Zinc, copper and magnesium regulate a host of vital reactions in our body.
Function: Formation of bones and teeth, necessary for nerve, teeth and muscles
Food sources: Milk and milk products; fish; meat; beans; green leafy vegetables; broccoli, tapioca; cereals
Deficiency Disease: Rickets; Oesteomalacia, loss of teeth
Symptoms: Softening of bones; deformities; pain in bones; enamel.
Function: Formation of hemoglobin; acts as carrier of oxygen.
Food sources: Liver; green leafy vegetables; eggs, spinach; groundnuts; cereals; jaggery.
Deficiency Disease: Anaemia
Symptoms: Loss of weight; pale appearance; tiredness; loses of appetite.
Function: Formation of bones and teeth
Food sources: Milk; cereals; green leafy vegetables; nuts, bajra, meat
Deficiency Disease: Rickets and Oesteomalacia
Symptoms: Softening of bones; bowlegs; pigeon chest
Function: Metabolic control of hormone thyroxine; controls growth and mental ability.
Food sources: Iodized salt; sea food; fish; green leafy vegetable
Deficiency Disease: Goitre
Symptoms: Enlargement of thyroid gland; retarding of physical and mental growth.
Sodium and Potassium
Function: Maintenance of normal water balance in the body; associated with conduction of nerve impulse.
Food sources: Common salt; meat; poultry; fish; fruits; cereals; egg; spinach; pulses; potato; yogurt
Deficiency Disease: High blood pressure; Oedema; Osmotic pressure disturbed.
Symptoms: Severe malnutrition; high blood pressure; fatigue; loss of appetite; vomiting.