Non-Communicable Diseases

1. Diabetes mellitus

The disease can be diagnosed by blood test or urine test.


  1. Less secretion of insulin hormone from the pancreas.
  2. Mental stress.
  3. Through heredity from parents to children.


  1. More glucose in blood.
  2. Excessive and frequent passing of urine.
  3. Feeling thirsty and hungry frequently.
  4. Reduced healing capacity of injury.
  5. General weakness of the body.
  6. In extreme cases diabetic coma can take place making the patient unconscious.

Prevention and cure

  1. Control the excessive weight of the body.
  2. A regulated and controlled diet is to be taken.
  3. The food should not contain sugar and much carbohydrates.
  4. Injection of insulin before meals, if required (only on doctor’s prescription).

2. Cardio vascular diseases

Common Causes

  1. Deposition of cholesterol (a kind of fat) in the walls of coronary arteries which restrict the flow of blood to the heart muscles. This leads to heart attack.
  2. Due to reduced blood supply, and reduced oxygen available to the muscles, heart’s efficiency is affected.
  3. Due to stress and strain.
  4. Obesity (over weight).

(a) Hypertension: (high blood pressure)


  1. Persistent high blood pressure (BP)
  2. It may damage the arteries of kidney.
  3. In extreme cases the arteries may burst or blindness may be caused.
  4. It may also cause paralysis.

Prevention and Cure

  1. Do not build up mental tension.
  2. Low fat diet should be taken.
  3. Weight of the body must be kept under control.
  4. Good eating habits should be cultivated.
  5. Medicines may be taken as per doctor’s advice.

(b) Coronary heart disease


  1. Severe pain in the chest gasping for breathe.
  2. Intense nausea and vomiting.
  3. Lot of sweating takes place.
  4. Blood clot may be formed within the blood vessels.

Prevention and Cure

  1. A diet low in saturated fats may control the formation of cholesterol.
  2. Sound eating habits should be developed.
  3. Over weight should be checked.
  4. Avoid smoking, alcoholic drinks and drugs.
  5. Take treatment under a qualified doctor.
  6. Electrocardiogram (ECG) can diagnose the disease.
  7. By-pass surgery is performed in extreme cases.

3. Osteoporosis

Osteoporosis is an age dependent disorder with loss of the normal density of bone. The bones become fragile and are easily fractured. Bones that are affected by osteoporosis can fracture with only a minor fall or injury. Elderly men and women are most susceptible because of hormonal changes which occur with advancing age.


  1. The persons suffering from osteoporosis may not know about their condition for a long time, because osteoporosis doesn’t cause clear cut symptoms and one may not realize till a bone fracture.
  2. The symptoms of osteoporosis are related to the location of the fracture.
  3. Fractures of the spine can cause severe ‘band like’ pain that radiates around from the back to the side of the body. Repeated spine fractures can cause chronic lower back pain, as well as curving of the spine, which gives the individual a hunched-back appearance.
  4. Some patients with osteoporosis develop stress fractures of the feet while walking or stepping off. Hip fractures typically occur as a result of a fall. With osteoporosis, hip fractures can occur upon even minor accidents. Hip fractures may take a very long time to heal because of poor bone quality. 


  1. Patients suffering from osteoporosis are generally treated with vitamin D and calcium supplements. In addition they are advised bed rest so that the condition does not worsen.
  2. Changes to lifestyle and diet are also recommended. The patients are advised to take calcium either via dietary means or via supplements in the form of tablets. Since body absorbs about 500 mg calcium at a given time, the calcium intake should be spread throughout the day.
  3. Exercise also helps to protect persons from the risk of getting osteoporosis. However, it is important to do exercises for osteoporosis under the guidance of a professional physiotherapist.

4. Cancer

It is the uncontrolled and unwanted growth of cells.


  1. No definite cause has been arrived at so far. However, it is found that body has proto-oncogenes. These are activated by some substances or stimulus, which convert these into active cancer-causing oncogenes.
  2. Heavy smoking and alcoholism.
  3. Chewing of tobacco.
  4. Consistent irritation of skin or repeated injury at the same point.

Cancer is a kind of tumorous growth. Tumours can be classified into two categories:

(a) Benign tumour

It remains confined to the place of origin and does not spread to other body parts. It is relatively harmless.

(b) Malignant tumour

It spreads to other parts of the body and growth is rapid. This is serious and may cause death of the patient.


  1. Persistent lump or thickening in tissues, specially in tongue, breast and uterus.
  2. Any irregular bleeding or blood-tinged discharge from any body opening.
  3. Any sore that does not heal quickly.
  4. Change in the form of mole or wart.
  5. Persistent hoarseness in voice, cough or difficulty in swallowing.

Prevention and cure

  1. Cancer check up should be done once a year.
  2. Treatment should be taken under medical advice.
  3. Avoid smoking, taking alcohol and chewing of tobacco.
  4. Observe regularity in life style to keep body healthy.

5. Allergy

  1. Includes a group of non-infectious diseases.
  2. No definite cause is known.
  3. It is believed that they occur due to hyper-sensitivity of certain individuals to foreign matter (allergens) which may enter inside the body.
  4. Symptoms may be sneezing, gasping, running of eyes, irritation of throat or trachea.
  5. Allergens may be pollen grains, feathers, some animals or insects, drugs, medicines and odour.