Apart from DNA, RNA or Ribonucleic acid is the other important nucleic acid present inside the cell.
mRNA or messenger RNA is transcribed in the nucleus to carry information for the protein to be synthesized, from DNA to site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. mRNA is transcribed as a strand of complementary bases of one of the DNA strands and carries the information for the synthesis of a particular protein or polypeptide.
tRNA or transfer RNA, also called soluble RNA has a clover leaf structure with loops. One loop recognises the ribosome, the top loop has an ‘anticodon’ to recognise the codon (triplet nucleotide sequence coding for an amino acids) on mRNA. tRNA transfers the amino acids to their respective positions during synthesis of protein.
There are many t-RNAs which differ in their anticodon. Each tRNA is specific for an amino acid and can carry that amino acid to the ribosome during protein synthesis.
rRNA is a component of ribosome which are ribonucleoprotein particles containing RNA and proteins. rRNA is synthesized from the information in ribosomal genes in a chromosome. rRNA has a role in protein synthesis.