The temperature affects growth and development of plants. For flowering in some plants, a particular temperature is required. Studies show that if temperature is reduced to a particular point then flowering occurs at an early stage. For example by applying a temperature ranging between 1-10°C to certain variety of wheat, rice and cotton, growth of seedlings is accelerated and flowering occurs earlier. This method of inducing early flowering in plants at low temperature is called vernalisation.

Vernalisation is the process of accelerating the process of flowering by subjecting or exposing the plant to low temperature.

Practical Utility of Vernalisation

  1. Plants whose life cycle is completed in two seasons (biennials) can produce flower in one season if their seeds are pre-treated to a low temperature.
  2. Crops can be grown and harvested earlier i.e. biennials can be turned into annuals.