Price is the consideration in terms of money paid by consumers for the bundle of benefits he or she derives by using the product or service. In simple terms, it is the exchange value of goods and services in terms of money. Pricing (determination of price to be charged) is another important element of marketing mix and it plays a crucial role in the success of a product in the market.

If the price fixed is high, it is likely to have an adverse effect on the sales volume. If, on the other hand, it is too low, it will adversely affect the profitability. Hence, it has to be fixed after taking various aspects into consideration. The factors usually taken into account while determining the price of a product are:

  1. Cost: No business can survive unless it covers its cost of production and distribution. In large number of products, the retail prices are determined by adding a reasonable profit margin to the cost. Higher the cost, higher is likely to be the price, lower the cost lower the price.

  2. Demand: Demand also affects the price in a big way. When there is limited supply of a product and the demand is high, people buy even if high prices are charged by the producer. But how high the price would be is dependent upon prospective buyers’ capacity and willingness to pay and their preference for the product. In this context, price elasticity, i.e. responsiveness of demand to changes in price should also be kept in view.

  3. Competition: The price charged by the competitor for similar product is an important determinant of price. A marketeer would not like to charge a price higher than the competitor for fear of losing customers. Also, he may avoid charging a price lower than the competitor. Because it may result in price war.

  4. Marketing Objectives: A firm may have different marketing objectives such as maximisation of profit, maximisation of sales, bigger market share, survival in the market and so on. The prices have to be determined accordingly. For example, if the objective is to maximise sales or have a bigger market share, a low price will be fixed.

  5. Government Regulation: Prices of some essential products are regulated by the government under the Essential Commodities Act. For example, prior to liberalisation of the economy, cement and steel prices were decided by the government. Hence, it is essential that the existing statutory limits, if any, are also kept in view while determining the prices of products by the producers.