The process of staffing starts with ascertaining the required number of various categories of employees for the organisation. This is known as manpower planning. It decides the kinds of staff and the number of staff required for the organisation. This is done through several methods like job analysis, workload analysis, etc.
The next thing to be done in the staffing process is the recruitment exercise, i.e., finding out the available manpower from internal and external sources. The next step is to select the right person from the available manpower through tests and interviews and make appointments.
This is followed by their placement on the jobs and necessary introduction of the work environment and the rules of compensation, promotion, transfer etc. Thus, the various steps involved in the process of staffing are:
Manpower planning refers to the process of estimating the manpower requirement of an organisation. While estimating the manpower requirement, the management generally keeps in mind the available infrastructure including the technology, production schedule, market fluctuation, demand forecasts, government’s policies and so on.
It tentatively decides the kinds of staff as well as the number of staff needed for the organisation. The focus of the manpower planning is to get right number of qualified people at the right time.
Job analysis is a pre-requisite for any recruitment exercise. The job analysis helps in determining the qualifications, skills and experience required for various categories of employees. It involves:
These two aspects of job analysis (job description and job specification) are useful in recruitment and selection of employees so as to find the right person for the job.
Suppose you want to open a restaurant. After planning and organising you are aware of the various job positions that are required to be filled up. Let us say, you have assessed your requirement for a general manager, a chef, an accountant, and many other staff for home delivery of foods. Possibly, you have a list of persons interested to join your restaurant.
For example, your uncle has promised you to provide an experienced general manager. The manager of the bank from where you have taken loan has referred an accountant to you. One of the chief cooks of a reputed hotel has already approached or talked to you to join your restaurant as a chef. In addition to all these, you know that there is an office that can provide you people of your requirement by charging a fee, whenever you ask for it.
You also know that an advertisement in the newspaper can help you in getting applications from many people. While engaging yourself into all these activities you are basically trying to make a pool of suitable or interested applicants for the job. In other words you are recruiting the staff for your business.
When an adequate number of applications or names of interested candidates have been collected through the recruitment exercises, the selection process starts. Selection refers to the process of choosing the most suitable person from among the list of interested candidates. It involves going through the qualification and experience of all candidates and matching them with the expectation for the job so as to decide on the most suitable ones for the job. The entire process goes through a number of steps which may be called as selection procedure.
If the selected candidate decides to join the organisation, he or she has to report to the concerned authority and formally joins the organisation by giving his consent in writing. Then he or she is placed to perform specific job.
Thus, placement refers to selected candidate’s joining the positions in the organisation for which they have been selected. The appointment of every candidate is followed by a record of particulars of employment. Such records is properly maintained and described as employment record. It serves a useful purpose on many occasions like selection of employees for training, promotion, increments, etc.
Induction is the process of introducing new employees to the organisation. The new employees should know under whom and with whom he or she is to work, get acquainted and adjusted to the work environment, get a general idea about the rules and regulations, working conditions, etc.
Usually the immediate supervisor of the new employee introduces him to his work environment. A proper induction programme is likely to reduce his anxiety on how to cope with the work and how to become part of the organisation and helps in development of a favourable attitude towards the organisation and the job.
Helping the employees to improve their knowledge and skill so as to be able to perform their tasks more efficiently is known as training. It is an organised activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of people for a specific purpose. The term 'development' refers to the process of not only building up the skill and abilities for specific purpose but also the overall competence of employees to undertake more difficult and challenging tasks. It is generally used with reference to the training of managers and executives.
Performance appraisal means judging the performance of employees. Specifically, it means judging the relative abilities of employees at work in a systematic manner. This enables managers to identify employees who are performing the assigned work satisfactorily, and those who are not able to do so, and why.
To be fair, performance appraisal needs to be carried out using the same methods and keeping in view uniform standards of work. Generally it is the responsibility of supervisors to carry out performance appraisal of their subordinates, and report it to their own superiors. He may also have to identify the causes of the performance especially if it has fallen short of the expected performance.
The standard of performance or the expected level of performance of an employee on a job forms the basis of judging how well the employee has performed, and whether one employee is more efficient than the other in doing a similar job. The yardstick placed may be the desired quantity of output, the quality of work done, minimisation of wastage of materials caused in the process of work, etc.
The choice depends upon the type of job involved. However, where quantity or number of units produced or wastage of materials form the basis of appraisal, it is likely to be more accurate. On the other hand, quality of work done may be difficult to measure and hence performance appraisal may not be very accurate.
Compensation is one of the most important factors influencing relations between management and the workers. No organisation can attract and retain qualified employees without offering them a fair compensation.
The term 'compensation' refers to a wide range of financial and non financial rewards to the employees for services rendered to the organisation. It includes wages, salaries, allowances and other benefits which an employer pays to his employees in consideration for their services. Compensation may be divided into two categories:
Base or primary compensation is a fixed amount paid every month to an employee. It includes wages, salary and allowances paid to an employee irrespective of his performance.
Supplementary compensation refers to the compensation paid to the employees to motivate them to work more efficiently. It is also known as incentive compensation. The incentives may be monetary or non-monetary. The monetary incentives include bonus, commission sales, or profit sharing plans. The non-monetary incentives, on the other hand, include cordial relations with the supervisor, assignment of challenging jobs, recognition, etc. Such incentives help the employees to sustain interest in the job and motivates them to work hard. They also provide job satisfaction.
When an employee is assigned a job involving greater responsibilities, more pay, higher status and prestige than his/her present job, it is known as promotion. Thus, promotion refers to the advancement of an employee to a higher level or position. The main purpose of promotion is to make fuller use of the abilities of a person and also increase his job satisfaction.
The basis of promotion may be seniority in service or merit, that is, superior abilities of the employees, or it may be seniority and merit, that is, merits being the same, one who is senior, is considered for promotion. When the performance of an employee is not satisfactory and it cannot be improved, he may be assigned a job of lower rank carrying lower status and pay. This is known as 'demotion'.
Transfer refers to a type of job change where an employee is assigned a different job of the same rank and pay, or when an employee is assigned a similar job in another unit of the firm. Thus, transfer does not usually involve any increase in pay or a superior status. It may be done simply to enable the employee to gain wider experience, or to give him greater job satisfaction, or to balance the requirements of staff in different units.