Organization of a Computer

Computer is a device that transforms data into meaningful information. Computer can also be defined in terms of functions it can perform.

A computer can

  1. accept data
  2. store data
  3. process data as desired
  4. retrieve the stored data as and when required
  5. print the result in desired format

The major characteristics of a computer are high speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage.

Block Diagram of a Computer

The computer performs basically five major operations of functions irrespective of their size and make. These are

  1. It accepts data or instruction by way of input
  2. It stores data
  3. It can process data as required by the user
  4. It gives results in the form of output
  5. It controls all operations inside a computer

The block diagram of computer is

1. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs into the computer system.

2. Control Unit (CU): The process of input, output, processing and storage is performed under the supervision of a unit called 'Control Unit'. It decides when to start receiving data, when to stop it, where to store data, etc. It takes care of step-by-step processing of all operations inside the computer.

3. Memory Unit: This is used to store data and instructions.

4. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison.

5. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information.

The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). CPU is the brain of any computer system.