Organization of a Computer
Computer is a device that transforms data into meaningful information. Computer can also be defined in terms of functions it can perform.
A computer can
- accept data
- store data
- process data as desired
- retrieve the stored data as and when required
- print the result in desired format
The major characteristics of a computer are high speed, accuracy, diligence, versatility and storage.
Block Diagram of a Computer
The computer performs basically five major operations of functions irrespective of their size and make. These are
- It accepts data or instruction by way of input
- It stores data
- It can process data as required by the user
- It gives results in the form of output
- It controls all operations inside a computer
The block diagram of computer is
1. Input: This is the process of entering data and programs into the computer system.
2. Control Unit (CU): The process of input, output, processing and storage is performed under the supervision of a unit called 'Control Unit'. It decides when to start receiving data, when to stop it, where to store data, etc. It takes care of step-by-step processing of all operations inside the computer.
3. Memory Unit: This is used to store data and instructions.
4. Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU): The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison.
5. Output: This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information.
The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the Central Processing Unit (CPU). CPU is the brain of any computer system.