Computer Science

A computer is an electronic machine that takes an input, processes it to produce the desired output. Every computer is a combination of hardware and software. The physical components of a computer that can be seen and touched form the hardware.

For example, CPU, monitor, keyboard, printer are hardware or peripheral devices. The input to a computer is given in the form of instructions. These set of instructions that we give to the computer to perform a particular task constitutes a program. Many such programs together form a software for the computer. Operating system, Antivirus, MS Office, Computer games are all software applications.

Computer Basics | C++ Programming

Positioning of Elements

With CSS positioning, you can place an element exactly where you want it on your page. Together with floats, positioning gives you many possibilities to create an advanced and precise layout.

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Floating Elements

An element can be floated to the right or to left by using the property float.

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Height and Width Using CSS

With the width property, you can define a certain width of an element.

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Borders using CSS

Borders can be used for many things, for example as a decorative element or to underline a separation of two things. CSS gives you endless options when using borders in your pages.

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Padding using CSS

Padding can also be understood as "filling". This makes sense as padding does not affect the distance of the element to other elements but only defines the inner distance between the border and the content of the element.

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Margins using CSS

An element has four sides: right, left, top and bottom. The margin is the distance from each side to the neighboring element (or the borders of the document).

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Grouping of Elements (Span and Div)

The elements <span> and <div> are used to group and structure a document and will often be used together with the attributes class and id.

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Identification and Grouping of Elements (Class and Id)

Sometimes you want to apply a special style to a particular element or a particular group of elements.

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Links Using CSS

CSS allows you to define the properties differently depending on whether the link is unvisited, visited, active, or whether the cursor is on the link. This makes it possible to add fancy and useful effects to your website.

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Text using CSS

The property text-indent allows you to add an elegant touch to text paragraphs by applying an indent to the first line of the paragraph.

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Fonts using CSS

The property font-family is used to set a prioritized list of fonts to be used to display a given element or web page. If the first font on the list is not installed on the computer used to access the site, the next font on the list will be tried until a suitable font is found.

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Colors and Background using CSS

The color property describes the foreground color of an element.

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Applying CSS to HTML Document

There are three ways you can apply CSS to an HTML document. It is recommended to use external method.

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Introduction to CSS

CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets. Styles define how to display HTML elements. Styles are normally stored in Style Sheets. External Style Sheets are stored in CSS files and can save you a lot of work.

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Using Forms in Web Page

Forms are used in HTML for getting inputs from the user. It can be a registration form, feedback form, order form, contact form and so on.

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Creating Tables in Web Page

Tables are used to display data in Tabular format, containing rows and columns, on the screen. The HTML tag <TABLE> is used to define tables.

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Working with Links: Anchor Tag

Web pages are linked to one another through Hypertext Links. Section of text or image in the HTML document can be linked to an external document or to a specific place within the same document. The text or image that provides such linkage is known as Hypertext.

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Using Image in Web Page

Images can be placed in a web page by using <IMG> tag. It is an empty tag (only start tag, no end tag).

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Using Lists in Web Page

The HTML Supports several ways of arranging items in lists.

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Character Formatting Tags

The character formatting tags are used to specify how a particular text should be displayed on the screen to distinguish certain characters within the document.

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Formatting Web Page

 HTML tags used for formatting a web page are headings, paragraph, line break, preformatted text and horizontal rule.

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Creating First HTML Document

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is used to create document on the World Wide Web. It is simply a collection of certain keywords called Tags that are helpful in writing the document to be displayed using a browser on Internet.

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Internet Terminology

A network is defined as data communication system that interconnects computer systems. A network may be composed of different combination of LANs (Local area Networks), MANs (Metropolitan Area Networks) or, WANs (Wide Area Networks). At the simplest a network consists of two computers or devices with a length of wire between them, facilitating communication.

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Security Threats and Safety Measures

With the wide spread use of internet, networks and computers have become increasingly susceptible to threats. These threats destroy data as well the programs that computers use. The objective of these threats is to destroy the data and to steal the vital information stored in computers.

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Computer Networking

A computer network is interconnection of various computer systems located at different places. In computer network two or more computers are linked together with a medium and data communication devices for the purpose of communication data and sharing resources.

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Data Communication

Data transmission is the movement of information using some standard methods. These methods include electrical signals carried along a conductor, optical signals along an optical fibers and electromagnetic areas.

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Fundamentals of Internet

Internet is the world's largest computer network, the network of networks, scattered all over the world. Initially, it was created as a project for the U.S. Department of Defence. Its goal was to create a method for widely separated computers to transfer data efficiently even in the event of a nuclear attack.

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C++ Files

At times it is required to store data on hard disk or floppy disk in some application program. The data is stored in these devices using the concept of file.

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C++ Pointer

In C++, the programming with pointers is more powerful and it is used extensively. It saves the processing time. Pointer is a variable which holds the address of another variable. So, programming is concerned with the address, not with the direct value stored.

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Inheritance Extending Classes

Inheritance is the capability of one class to inherit properties from another class as a child inherits some properties from his or her parents. The most important advantage of inheritance is code reusability. Once a base class is written and debugged, it can be used in various situations without having to redefine it or rewrite it. Reusing existing code saves time, money and efforts of writing the code again. Without redefining the old class, you can add new properties to desired class and redefine an inherited class member function.

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C++ Classes and Objects

Class

A class is way to bind the data and its associated functions together. It allows data functions to be hidden, if necessary from external use. 

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C++ Structure, Typedef and Enumerated Data Type

Structure

A structure is a collection of simple variables which can be of same or different types. The data items in a structure are called the members of the structure.

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C++ Arrays

The ordered collection of identical elements is called an array. Sometimes, it is required to store a large number of variables of the same type, one can use an array. The array can be one dimensional (one subscript) or two dimensional (two subscripts).

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C++ Functions

Library Functions

C++ provides many built in functions that saves the programming time.

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Control Statements in C++

The normal flow of execution in a high level language is sequential, i.e., each statement is executed in the order of its appearance in the program. However, depending on the requirements of a problem it might be required to alter the normal sequence of execution in a program. The statements which specify the order of execution of statements are called control flow statements.

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Object Oriented Programming (OOP)

The object-oriented programming (OOP) is a different approach to programming. Object oriented technology supported by C++ is considered the latest technology in software development. It is regarded as the ultimate paradigm for the modelling of information, be that data or logic.

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Introduction to C++

C++ is an extension to C Programming language. It was developed at AT&T Bell Laboratories in the early 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is a deviation from traditional procedural languages in the sense that it follows object oriented programming (OOP) approach which is quite suitable for managing large and complex programs.

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Presentation

Whenever you appear in front of one or more people to present your ideas, deliver speech, give classroom lecture, organize computer conference, etc., you have a presentation. The basic purpose of any presentation is communication. To communicate effectively, you must state your facts in a simple, concise and interesting manner. Any presentation consists of four basic elements: you, your audience, your message and your tools.

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Spreadsheet

A spreadsheet is a large sheet having data and information arranged in rows and columns. Excel is one of the most widely used spreadsheet applications. Spreadsheet is quite useful in entering, editing, analyzing and storing data. Arithmetic operations with numerical data such as addition, subtraction, multiplication and division can be done using Excel.

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Word Processing

Word processing is an application program that allows you to create letters, reports, newsletters, tables, form letters, brochures, and Web pages. Using this application program you can add pictures, tables, and charts to your documents. You can also check spelling and grammar.

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Computer Languages

Languages are a means of communication. Normally people interact with each other through a language. On the same pattern, communication with computers is carried out through a language. This language is understood both by user and the machine.

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Classification of Software

Computers cannot do anything on its own. It is the user who instructs computer; what to do, how to do and when to do. In order to perform any task, you have to give a set of instructions in a particular sequence to the computer. These sets of instructions are called Programs.

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Peripheral Devices

Peripheral devices are connected to the computer externally. These devices are used for performing some specific functions.

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Organization of a Computer

Computer is a device that transforms data into meaningful information. Computer can also be defined in terms of functions it can perform.

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