India has a long coastline, which is vulnerable to the tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea. The Bay of Bengal region is frequently battered by storms and cyclones.
Cyclones are intense low-pressure areas in the form of depressions or cyclone storms. Severe cyclones are associated with hurricane, winds, etc.
There are two cyclone seasons in India, the pre-monsoon season (April-May) and the post-monsoon season (October-December). The states of Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal are the most affected states due to cyclones.
Balasore district in Orissa is the most vulnerable district for cyclone landfall. Orissa super cyclone occurred in the state of Orissa on October 29, 1999 at a wind speed of 270-300 km per hour accompanied by heavy rains continuously for three days. The sea surged up to 7 m high and sea waves travelled up to 15-20 km in land. This resulted in heavy losses. The agriculture, livestock, infrastructure, industries and environment were badly devastated during this cyclone.