Salts are ionic compounds made of a cation other than H+ ion and an anion other than OH– ion. Salts are formed in many reactions involving acids and bases.
Salts are the product (besides water) of a neutralization reaction. For example,
NaOH + HCl → NaCl + H2O
KOH + HNO3 → KNO3 + H2O
MOH + HX → MX + H2O
The positively charged cation of the salt comes from the base. Therefore, it is called the basic radical. The negatively charged anion of the salt comes from the acid. It is therefore, called the acid radical of the salt.
For example, in the salt NaCl, the cation Na+ comes from the base NaOH and is its basic radical and the anion Cl– comes from the acid HCl and is its acid radical.
In a reaction between an acid and a metal, salt is produced along with hydrogen.
Zn + H2SO4 → ZnSO4 + H2
Salts are produced in reactions between acids and metal carbonates and hydrogen carbonates (bicarbonates) along with water and carbon dioxide.
CaCO3 + 2HCl → CaCl2 + H2O + CO2
NaHCO3 + HCl → NaCl + H2O + CO2