Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering is also called recombinant DNA technique. In this technique, gene from an organism of a species can be transferred to become part of the or genome of an organism belonging to another species which is then termed GMO genetically modified organism.

The transfer is possible through "plasmids" present in bacteria. Plasmid is a circular DNA molecule found in bacteria. It is not part of the bacterial chromosome. Transfer is also possible through viruses that attack bacteria and are called bacteriophage. These carry genes from a cell culture (bacterial cells grown in a culture dish) and transfer into bacteria.

A bacterial "clone" containing the required gene may then yield the "foreign" gene which can be used for replacing a defective gene during gene therapy. Genetic engineering also has many other benefits.