Grammar

English grammar is the way in which meanings are encoded into wordings in the English language. This includes the structure of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences, right up to the structure of whole paragraphs. Eight parts of speech are commonly distinguished in English: nouns, determiners, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions.

Introductory Grammar | Verbal Ability Tutorial

Verbal Ability Tutorial

Verbal Ability is the defined as the capability of a person in expressing ideas using words in a clearly understandable manner.

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Introductory Grammar

Introductory English Grammar covering Parts of Speech, Verbs, Sentences, Clauses, Modals, Prefixes and Contractions.

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Structure of Sentences

Simple Sentence

A simple sentence, also called an independent clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. Thus, a Simple sentence is one which has only one Subject and one Predicate.

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Concord of Number and Person

Concord means agreement, in Grammar.The use of verbs and their agreement with their subjects in number (singular or plural) and person.

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Wh questions

There are two types of questions, open-ended questions and close-ended questions. Open-ended questions encourage the speaker to speak more in response, whereas close-ended questions keep the conversation to the point and restricted.

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Verbs

A verb is that word in a sentence that talks about an action.

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Synonym-Antonym Questions

Synonyms are words that are the most similar in meaning to a given word. Antonyms, on the other hand, are words that are completely opposite to the word given.

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Simple Tenses of Verbs

The job of a verb is to mention the action of a sentence. However, an action could have happened in the past, can happen in the present, or can happen in the future too. Depending on the time in which the action takes place, the verb is expressed in tenses.

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Reading Comprehension

Reading comprehension is an integral part of any competitive examination. It involves interpreting sentences and finding out the answers to questions that are based on the passages.

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Quantifiers

A quantifier is a word or phrase which is used before a noun to indicate the amount or quantity. Quantifiers can be used with countable and uncountable nouns.

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Punctuations

Punctuation is the use of spacing and conventional signs to get the proper understanding and correct reading of texts. Incorrect application of punctuation signs often lead to misunderstandings.

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Pronouns

A pronoun takes the place of an unknown noun or repeated mention of a noun. For example, Misha wondered if she should see a doctor.

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Progressive Verb Tenses

Present Progressive Tense

This tense is used when the action is continuing over a particular time in the present. It is different from simple present as the actions in simple present occur regularly over a period of time, but actions in the present progressive continue to happen in only a specifically mentioned time.

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Prepositions

Prepositions, as per their name, are always used before nouns. They are used to mention the location, position, or order of occurrence of something.

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Perfect Tense of Verbs

Present Perfect Tense

Present perfect tense is used when an action that started in the later past and completed in the recent past, influences some action in the present. In these cases, the verbs are mentioned in past participle form, and “have” with “I, you, we, they” and “has” with “he, she, it” and related nouns.

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Perfect Progressive of Verbs

Present Perfect Progressive

Present perfect progressive is used when an action that started in the past continues even in the present. We use "have been + <verb+ing>" for "I, we, you, they" and related nouns. These sentences use "has been + <verb+ing> for "he, she, it" and related nouns. In addition to that, the verb used in "has/have/had been" structure is always used with "ing" as the action is supposed to be continuing.

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Nouns

A noun is the name of a person, place, thing, quality, animal, idea or activity.

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Modals and Usages

While other auxiliary verbs are used for expressing actions or helping main verbs in expressing actions, modals are special auxiliary verbs used to express opinions on an action, or possibility of an action happening.

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Gerunds, Infinitives and Participles

There are certain applications of nouns which may sound like verbs, but actually function as nouns. These are called “verbals” or verbal nouns. They are gerunds, infinitives, and participles.

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Direct & Reported Speech

Direct speech are exact quotes of the speech. They are completely identical transcripts of speech between two people.

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Determiners

Determiners give information about nouns. They say something specific about a noun when used with them. This function is usually performed by articles, demonstratives, possessive determiners, or quantifiers.

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Conjunctions

Conjunctions are words that are used to join sentences so that multiple expressions can be portrayed. They are used to join words (puri and halwa), phrases (neither the air, nor the water), and clauses (if he says, then I will do it)

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Conditionals

Conditionals are used when an action has the possibility of occurring only when another condition if fulfilled. These statements are generally framed as “if… then” statements”. The “if statement” is considered the conditional clause, and the “then” statement is considered the main clause.

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Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary Verbs are also known as “supporting verbs”. They are often placed before the main verb to help identify the time of an action, or to confirm, deny and question an action. They are also used to convert sentences from active to passive.

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Articles

An article is used to describe the noun. In English, there are three articles — the, a, and an. ‘The’ is used to describe particular nouns; ‘a’ and ‘an’ are used to describe non-particular nouns.

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Adverbs

An adverb is a word used to modify or describe verbs. These words are used to explain the manner in which an action takes place. It answers the “how” questions asked on the action, i.e., verbs.

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Adjectives

An adjective is a word which describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun. For example, in the sentence, “Sita has bought a red, five-seater car”, the words “red, five-seater” are adjectives as they describe the noun, “car”.

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Active and Passive Voice

Active Voice

In Active Voice, the one doing the action is mentioned as the subject and is given more importance, whereas the other one just participating in the action is mentioned as an object and given lesser importance.

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Gerunds

Gerunds are used as nouns although they are derived from verbs. A word which was a verb does the work of a Noun by adding "ing".

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Infinitives

Infinitives are formed by writing to + verb

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Modals

Modals are special verbs that are used with the main verb to make the sentence more meaningful.

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Contractions

Contractions are short forms which are used very often in spoken English and in informal writing.An apostrophe (') is inserted in place of the letter which is omitted.

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Direct Speech and Indirect Speech

In day-to-day life, there are many instances, when you hear something said by a person and then you report the same to another person. This reporting of statements is termed as Report Speech.

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Prefixes

A prefix is a group of letters added before a word to change its meaning. For example, "relevant" means something significant or important. When "ir" is added as a prefix, the word becomes ir + relevant = irrelevant, which means insignificant or not important.

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Phrasal Verbs

A phrasal verb is a simple verb combined with an adverb or a preposition or sometimes both to make a new verb with a meaning that is different from that of the simple verb.

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English Grammar: Conjunctions

A Conjunction is a word which connects together sentences or words. These are also called linking words or connectors.

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English Grammar: Prepositions

A Preposition is a word placed before a noun or a pronoun to show in what relation the person or thing denoted by it stands in regard to something else. A preposition is a word in a sentence that tells us about place, position, time or method.

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English Grammar: Adverbs

A word that modifies the meaning of a verb, an adjective, or another adverb is called an Adverb.

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English Grammar: Adjectives

An Adjective as a word used with a noun to add something for its meaning. To describe any person, place or thing, adjectives are used.

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English Grammar: Nouns

A Noun is a word used as the name of a person, place or thing.

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Parts of Speech

The words in English can be classified (according to their functions in a sentence) into Parts of Speech.

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Regular and Irregular Verbs

Verbs can be classified as regular verbs and irregular verbs.

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English Grammar: Verbs

A Verb is a word that tells or asserts something about a person or thing. it is the most important word in a sentence. A Verb tell what a person or thing does, what is done to a person or thing, what a person or thing is.

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English Grammar: Pronouns

A Pronoun is a word used instead of a Noun. Using a proper noun each time, you wish to talk about a person, place or thing. This can make the conversation or piece of writing very boring and repetitive. To avoid this monotony, we use pronouns in place of nouns. These words make the writing crisp.

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Clauses

A clause is a group of words, which has a subject and a predicate with a finite verb of its own.

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