Fishing has been an important occupation of the people in the coastal areas. However, in spite of having a long coastline and broad continental shelf, India’s fishing industry is still largely in a developing stage.
Modernization on limited scale has started recently. Fisheries are of two types:
The inland fishing is done in rivers, tanks, ponds and canals. The major rivers like Brahmaputra, Ganga, Satluj, Narmada, Mahanadi and Godavari; and numerous tanks and ponds are tapped for fishing. Inland fish production is accounted for two-fifths or 40 percent of total fish production in India during 1995-96.
Open sea fishing or marine fishing, done in sea water, is caught in shallow water in our country. More than two-thirds of marine fish is landed on western coast of India. While remaining one third on the eastern coast. India caught 5.6 lakhs tonnes of fish during 2000-01.
Though, India has huge potential for fishing but the actual catch is very small. The main factors responsible for poor performance in fishing are traditional methods, wooden loge made boats, driven by human energy, and poor socio-economic conditions of the fishermen.
In order to increase fish production and trade, the Government has taken a number of steps including:
The rapid increase in the production of fish in the country is called Blue Revolution. This is synonymous with shrimp farming or Aquaplosion.