Indian Geography

Indian Geography

International Trade

Introduction

  • Trade simply means the voluntary exchange of goods and services, where two or more parties are involved.

  • In the present world, trades are international and national.

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Evolution of the Earth

Introduction

  • There are dozens of hypotheses proposed regarding the origin of the earth by different philosophers.

  • However, one of the hypotheses namely “Nebular Hypothesis” given by Immanuel Kant and revised by Laplace became more popular.

  • According to Nebular Hypothesis, the planets were formed out of a cloud of material associated with a youthful sun.

  • Big Bang Theory, which is also known as expanding universe hypothesis is the modern and the most accepted theory.

  • Edwin Hubble was the first one who provided evidence that the universe is expanding, in 1920.

  • It is believed that the event of Big Bang took place about 13.7 billion years from now.

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Introduction to Geography

  • The term geography was first coined by a Greek scholar Eratosthenes.

  • The word geography carries basically two Greek terms i.e. ‘geo’ (meaning earth) and ‘graphos’ (meaning description), and the meaning of geography is ‘description of the earth.’

  • Geography is an interdisciplinary subject as well as it is a discipline of ‘spatial synthesis.’

  • Richard Hartshorne defines Geography as “Geography is concerned with the description and explanation of the areal differentiation of the earth’s surface.”

  • Hettner defines Geography as “Geography studies the differences of phenomena usually related in different parts of the earth’s surface.”

  • Further, the following diagram summarizes the concept of Geography as −

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Natural Disasters in India

Introduction

  • Disaster is an undesirable catastrophe resulting from the forces that are largely beyond human control, strikes quickly with little or no warning, and causes or threatens serious disruption of life and property. For example, earthquake, tsunami, cyclone, flood, etc.

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Regional Development in India

Introduction

  • India has centralized planning and the task of planning in India has been entrusted to the Planning Commission of India.

  • Planning Commission of India is a statutory body headed by the Prime Minister and has a Deputy Chairman and other members.

  • However, the Planning Commission of India is recently is now “National Institution for Transforming India” or simply NITI Aayog.

  • The planning in the country is largely carried out through the array of Five Year Plans.

  • At present, the Twelfth Five Year Plan is running, which was initiated in 2012 with a focus on ‘Faster, More Inclusive and Sustainable Growth’.

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Migration in India

Introduction

  • During colonial period (i.e. British period) millions of the indentured laborers were sent to Mauritius, Caribbean islands (Trinidad & Tobago and Guyana), Fiji, and South Africa by British Government largely from the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar.

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Settlement of India

Introduction

  • A cluster of dwellings of any type and size where human beings live is known as human settlement.

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Foreign Trade of India

Introduction

  • In 1950-51, India’s external trade was worth Rs.1, 214 crores, which rose to Rs. 22, 09,270 crores in 2009-10.

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Communications of India

Radio

  • Radio broadcasting was started in India in 1923 by the Radio Club of Bombay.

  • Government took control over radio broadcasting in 1930 and established the Indian Broadcasting System.

  • All India Radio was constituted in 1936 and it came to be known as Akashwani from 1957.

  • Over a period of time, All India Radio started broadcasting a variety of programs related to information, education, and entertainment.

  • Among all programs, news bulletins were also broadcasted at specific occasions like the session of parliament and state legislatures.

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Transport of India

Introduction

  • People use various methods to move goods, commodities, ideas from one place to another.

  • Land, water, and air are the major modes of transportation.

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Industry of India

Introduction

  • On the basis of size, capital investment, and labor force employed, industries are classified as large, medium, small scale, and cottage industries.

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Energy Resources of India

Introduction

  • Major sources of energy in India are classified as:

    • Conventional sources (e.g. coal, petroleum, and nuclear power).

    • Non-conventional sources (e.g. solar energy, hydro energy, geo-thermal energy, etc.)

  • Fossil fuel or conventional sources of energy are found exhaustible in nature and also not environmental friendly; on the other hand, the non-conventional sources of energy such as solar energy, wind energy, geo-thermal energy, tidal energy, etc. are renewable sources of energy and they are also environmental friendly (as they do not pollute environment).

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Mineral Resources of India

Introduction

  • On the basis of chemical and physical properties, minerals are grouped as:

    • Metallic minerals
    • Non-metallic minerals
  • Major examples of metallic minerals are iron ore, copper, gold, etc.

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Agriculture of India

Introduction

  • There are three distinct cropping seasons in the northern and interior parts of India, namely kharif, rabi, and zaid.

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Land Resources of India

Introduction

  • Land use record is maintained by the Land Revenue Department.

  • The Survey of India is accountable for measuring geographical area of administrative units in India.

  • There is difference between the actual forest area and the forest area defined by the Government.

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Soil of India

Introduction

  • Soil is very important and a valuable resource for every human being.

  • Soil is the mixture of rock debris and organic materials, which develop on the earth’s surface.

  • The major factors that determine soils’ characteristics are parent material, climate, relief, vegetation, time, and some other life-forms.

  • Major constituents of the soil are mineral particles, humus, water, and air.

  • A soil horizon is a layer generally parallel to the soil crust, whose physical characteristics differ from the layers above and beneath.

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Wildlife of India

Introduction

  • India is one of the $12^{th}$ mega bio-diversity countries of the world.

  • With approximately 47,000 plant species, India ranks $4^{th}$ in Asia and $10^{th}$ in the world (in terms of plant diversity).

  • India has about 15,000 species of flowering plants and contributes 6 percent to world’s total flowering plants.

  • India has about 90,000 species of animals.

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Natural Vegetation of India

  • Natural vegetation refers to a plant community that has been left undisturbed over a long period of time.

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Drainage System of India

Introduction

  • The flow of water through well-defined channels is known as drainage and the network of such channels is known as drainage system.

  • The drainage pattern of an area is the result of the geological time period, nature, and structure of rocks, topography, slope, etc.

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Physical Aspect of India

India - Evolution

  • As per the estimation, the earth is approximately 460 million years old.

  • The endogenic and exogenic forces played a significant role in giving shape to various surface and subsurface features of the earth.

  • The theory of Plate Tectonics defines the formation of physical aspects of the earth.

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Introduction to India

India - Location

  • India is located entirely in the northern hemisphere; specifically in the south-central part of the continent of Asia.

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