Indian Geography

Great Northern Plains

This plain extends from west to east, between Himalayas in the north and Great Indian Plateau in the south. The plain extends from the arid and semi-arid areas of Rajasthan in the west to Brahmputra valley in the east.

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Purvachal

Purvachal is the name given to all the hills of north east India beyond Brahmaputra gorge. The average height of these hills from sea level is 500 to 3000 metres.

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Trans-Himalayan Ranges

There are some mountain ranges to the north of the Himadri in Jammu and Kashmir. The range extending to the north of the Himadri and running parallel to it is called the Zaskar range.

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Siwalik (Outer Himalaya)

The southern most range of Himalayas is known as Siwalik. The Himadri and Himachal ranges of the Himalayas have been formed much before the formation of Siwalik range. The rivers rising in the Himadri and Himachal ranges brought gravel, sand and mud along with them, which was deposited in the rapidly shrinking Tethys Sea.

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Himachal (Lesser or Middle Himalaya)

It is located southwards of Himadri. The breadth of Himachal range is 60 to 80 km and the height varies from 1000 metres to 4500 metres. Some of the peaks of this range have a height of more than 5000 metres. This range is highly dissected and uneven.

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Himadri (Greater Himalaya)

This is the northern most and the highest range of the Himalayas. This is the only range of the Himalaya which maintains its continuity from west to east. The core of this range is made up of granite rocks and flanked by metamorphic and sedimentary rocks.

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Himalayas

This is the highest mountain range of the world. It extends in the shape of an arc for a distance of about 2500 km from west to east along the northern boundary of India between the Indus gorge in Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Brahmputra gorge in Arunachal Pradesh in the east.

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Great Northern Mountains

They include the mountains and plateaus of northern Kashmir, the Himalayas proper and the hills of Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and Meghalaya.

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Physiographic Divisions of India

India is a land of physical diversities. Almost all types of picturesque and breath taking landforms are found here. According to one estimate, 29.3 per cent of area of India is occupied by mountains and hills, 27.7 per cent by plateaus and 43 per cent by plains.

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Size of India

India accounts for 2.42 per cent of the world’s total land area; whereas it sustains 16 per cent of the world population. The land frontiers of India measure 15,200 km.

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Location, Extent & Boundaries of India

A huge landmass of South Asia is flanked by new fold towering mountains on the northwest, north and northeast. The Arabian sea lies to its southwest, the Bay of Bengal to its southeast and the Indian Ocean to its south. This well defined South Asian landmass is called Indian sub-continent.

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