Type refers to a category of things having some common features whereas pattern refers to a regular form or order in which a series of things occur. When we say settlement pattern, the term is strictly applied to the spatial arrangement or distribution of settlements within a given area.
In simpler term we can define settlement as any form of human habitation which ranges from a single dwelling to large city. The word settlement has another connotation as well as this is a process of opening up and settling of a previously uninhabited area by the people.
In accordance with UNDP Human Development Report, the Planning Commission of India came out with a similar kind of report in 2001. The report analysed human development situation in major states of India which include the then undivided Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh.
Th Constitution of India recognises a number of castes and tribal groups. These castes and tribes are called Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) respectively.
A minute observation shows that in each state there are variations in distribution of population and more than one category of population density is found. The geographical or spatial distribution becomes more clear by making an analysis of district level pattern.
The spatial spread of population in India is not uniform. There are very wide regional variations. Many factors are responsible for these variations. All such factors affecting the population distribution and density may broadly be grouped into two major categories.
Air transport is the fastest and highly convenient mode of transport, although it is more costly than other modes. One can cover a journey between Delhi and Bangalore in about two and a half hours by an aeroplane while this distance is covered in about 42 hours by a railway express train.
According to World Book Dictionary the term "infrastructure" denotes the essential elements forming the basis of a system or a structure. Infrastructure covers the resources, which strengthen the basis of the economy of a country.
The process of industrialization in India can be divided into two parts - before and after 1992. During first forty years after independence the Indian economy had diversified and expanded very fast. But this growth was characterized by rigid controls and regulations.
There are regional variations in the levels of industrial development in India. Indian industries have concentrated in clusters at some locations. Most industrial regions in India have developed in the hinterlands of some major ports like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai.
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