The rock paintings were an important and distinct feature of the Mesolithic people though their beginning may be traced to the upper Palaeolithic period. These paintings are made on the walls of rock shelters, maximum of which have been found at Bhimbetka in Madhya Pradesh.
These throw light on the social and economic life on Mesolithic people. The main subjects of paintings are hunting, fishing and food gathering. Animals like boar, buffalo, monkey and nilgai are often depicted in these paintings.
The social activities like the child birth, rearing of a child and burial ceremony are also shown in the rock paintings. The scenes of hunting in a group suggest that Mesolithic people lived in small groups. Thus, the Mesolithic society was more stable than the one in Palaeolithic age, though hunting-gathering still remained its main preoccupation.