The principles were put into practice in the southern Kerala state of Venad (Travancore) by Martanda Varma (ruled 1729-58). The king initiated a few measures to strengthen his authority.
It was also the policy of this ruler to extend patronage to the Syrian Christians, a large trading community within his domains, as a means of limiting European involvement in trade. The key commodity was pepper, but other goods also came to be defined as royal monopoly items, requiringlicense for trade.
These policies were continued in large measure by Martanda’s successor, Rama Varma (ruled 1758-98), who was able to defend his kingdom successfully against a dangerous new rival power - Mysore.