Chanderi was under the Muslim rule for a long time before being captured by Rana Sanga during one of his wars with Ibrahim Lodi. It was later given to Medini Rai, who had served Sultan Mahmud Khilji as prime minister. Medini Rai was one of Rana Sanga's most distinguished lieutenants. He assisted Rana Sanga in many campaigns against the Sultans of India. He fought along with Rana Sanga in the battle of Khanwa against Babur. After the battle Medini Rai returned to Chanderi. But Babur decided to make Chanderi his next objective.
Chanderi was a walled town. The citadel was built on a hill above the town, with an outer-fort below the hill. The citadel's water supply was lower down the hill, and was protected by a double line of walls that ran from the citadel down to the outer fort. The town's location made Babur's artillery less effective than normal.
Babur's chief of ordnance, was unable to find a position above the height of the walls, and so work began on building a mound for the mortar. The rest of the army was ordered to build ladders and mantlets. Babur's next move was to send Araish Khan to meet with Medini Rao with a peace offer - if Medini Rao would surrender Chanderi then he would be rewarded with Shamsabad. This offer was refused.
The strategic planning and clever use of men and weapons by Babur made it clear to the defenders of Chanderi that the end of the siege was close. At this point they performed the ritual of Jauhar, killing their women before making one final desperate attack on Babur's men.The fall of the town had happened so quickly that Babur himself could not take part in the battle.
After the Battle of Chanderi, no Rajput ruler ever challenged the authority of Babur.