# Reasoning

### Introduction

Word formation is a process of utilizing your intellectual knowledge to form a meaningful word from a given series of jumbled letters. numbered You should have strong vocabulary knowledge to solve these types of questions. Unless you are not good at judging the write spelling of a word, situation may become difficult for you with a rise in complexity of the questions. To understand the basic of this type of question, let’s start with a simple example.

### Introduction

This is a chapter upon time calculation. By this, it does not mean that we have to calculate hours and minutes; rather we have to go back some weeks or may be some months and years back to estimate the exact day of some particular event.

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In this type of reasoning, we will be given a short passage. The passage can be on any aspect. This passage will be followed by a questions which will be followed by some options. Our aim is to carefully read the passage and answer the questions. Unlike other English passages, here the questions will be based on the theme of the passage. Hence, the name is theme detection.

### Introduction

A dice is a small cube and a number of dots, letters, numbers, or figures can be drawn on the six faces of dice. Dice problems are frequently asked in candidate selection process. Six faces of a dice can be made by folding a piece of paper cut in a predetermined shape having six squares as described in the figure.

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The meaning of syllogism as given by Greeks is Deduction. It’s a kind of logical argumentation.

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Statement and conclusion is basically a logical reasoning section. In this section, a statement will be given followed by a set of conclusions. You need to choose the conclusion that logically follows the statement the most. Sometimes the conclusions can be directly understood by reading the statement and sometimes the reader needs to analyse it to get the indirect conclusion. Sometimes any one of the conclusion may follow and sometimes all may follow. It may also happen that either one of them follow or none of them follow. It depends upon the reader’s perception power to analyse the statements to arrive at the right conclusion.

### Introduction

Statement and assumptions deal with the process of judging a given statement and assume the most practical sentence among the given set of conclusions. Generally two conclusions are given. One or more conclusions may become practical depending upon the given statement. Therefore; careful reading and correct logical interpretation of a given statement is required.

### Introduction

Statement and arguments are those types of problems where your decision making power and analytical power are being exercised. A given statement will have two possible arguments. The reader needs to decide which argument is much stronger enough to support the main statement. There may be a case where neither or both the statements may be strong. Sometimes even anyone of the argument can be strong. Let’s take an example to understand it in a much better way.

### Introduction

This chapter will help a student to judge a situation and react accordingly. Through this one would be put into a situation where he/she has to choose the correct reaction that he/she would make from the given number of choices. Though the problem sounds difficult but is too easy if you will understand the core theme of the situation. Do not assume any other things that are not told in the given passage of situation. Your reaction should be such that you must have some strong logic to support your answer.

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We have to draw a rough diagram to understand the sitting arrangement.

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A series is a continuous sequence of numbers, letters, or words that are obtained by some particular previously defined rule. Applying that predefined rule, it is possible to find out the next term of the series.

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This type of problems demands an individual’s little bit understanding the rank of a particular person or a thing in a vertical or horizontal arrangement. Problems are asked on different variations and student must need to understand and practise well to solve those. In this tutorial we will discuss the various aspects of this ranking and order type of problems. Now let’s take a simple example and try to understand what exactly this chapter is.

### Introduction

Puzzle is considered as the toughest part of reasoning. In these days, various nation-wide exams are being conducted each year whether it is management entrance exams like CAT, XAT, MAT or bank selection exams like IBPS, SBI, RBI or any other exam. There is reasoning part and reasoning questions cannot be completed until there are puzzle questions.

### Introduction

This particular section of reasoning demands a through reading of a passage with a clear understanding of the subject and then judging the truth of certain pre-given statements based upon your vision of understanding but that should match the questioner’s vision of understanding too. This process can be made simpler by using the the correct way of logical interpretation of the passage. Any statement that seems to be probably true should not be marked with True. Off course the idea of judging the statements from the given passage can be well understood with number of practise sessions.

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In every competitive exam, Odd Man Out type questions are very common. In odd man out problems all the items given in the question except one follow a certain pattern or a group. The item which is different and doesn’t belong to that group will be the answer.

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In competitive exams various types of questions on numbers are asked. To solve these types of questions, you require a little common sense. This test depends on these concepts − “ascending order”, “descending order”, “preceded by”, “followed by” etc. Let’s discuss about ascending and descending order with examples.

### Introduction

Inserting a missing figure problems are generally asked in various competitive exams, which mainly consist of a figure divided into various regions. In between these regions, there will be numbers, letters or it may be the combination of letters and numbers following certain sequence. They are in a series inside the given figure. The question may contain single figure or combination of two or more than two figures.

### Introduction

This is a part of reasoning section where the questions are based upon the normal and basic mathematical operations but not in the same procedure. It means that there will be certain manipulation with the symbols of the operator and the reader needs to solve those questions keeping in mind those manipulations. For example, it will be given to consider &plus; as – then you have to perform subtraction at the point of &plus; symbol.

### Introduction

Questions relating to machine input-output or simply input-output are a series of statements in different steps and is stated in jumbled manner. It is a kind of computer or word-processing machine and this machine performs some operations on the input that is given. The machine operates repeatedly according to a predetermined pattern.

### Introduction

It is a process of showing complex relationship between 2-3 categories diagrammatically through various geometric strictures. Intersection between two geometric structures indicate that they have something in common and total isolation indicates just opposite of that. Though the theory seems to be complex from above but a basic understanding of various types of sample cases will help in solving the coming questions more easily.

### Introduction

Logical sequence of words as the name implies is that type of reasoning which consists of words and we have to find out a sequence which is logical in that context. Normally, in these questions, the words are mentioned in serial numbers 1, 2, 3 etc. There should be a minimum of four words to ensure complexity of the question. There are is no limit of maximum serial of numbers.

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Logical deduction is an important chapter as many easy and mark fetching questions from this chapter are included in various competitive exams. In this chapter, we will discuss two methods to solve such problems −

• Syllogism method
• Venn diagram method

### Introduction

Combination of two elementary problems are involved in the problems based on inequality and coded inequality.

In this type of problems, coding scheme is told entirely in the question itself. To decode inequalities in a given problem wouldn’t mean anymore headache than a couple of extra seconds.

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Figure series problems are generally asked in competitive exams to test reasoning ability of candidates. It needs ability of a candidate to take quick decisions, fast problem solving capability, good comparing ability and quickness in finding reason behind various problems. It tests ability of candidate to imagine quick and proper solution. The figure on question may contain various geometrical figures, numbers, symbols or other pictures. Problems on figure series may be of different types.

### Introduction

This is a chapter that deals with the eligibility testing of a person for getting a job or for getting admission in an institution. Here number of conditions will be given to us for selecting a candidate for the post and simultaneously a number of test cases will be given. We have to analyse each test case and decide whether the candidate is eligible as per the condition set by the admission authority.

### Introduction

These are direction-based reasoning questions. We have to judge the exact direction and then have to answer accordingly. Questions are direction-based means that they give information upon a movement of a person in certain direction for a particular distance. We have to judge the direction and distance of the person from the starting point.

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It is a process in which a final outcome is derived by analysing the given data. A set of rules is specified as selection criteria. It is followed by qualification of the candidate. In selection procedure, two conditions are required these are:

### Introduction

In reasoning sections of various competitive exams, some questions are asked on Data sufficiency. Data sufficiency questions are not new topics. All you have to do is to analyse the given data and see if you can get the answer to the question using the given data.

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Nowadays, questions based on ‘Cubes and Cuboids’ are being asked in almost every competitive exam. These problems are very frequent in various competitive exams.

The methods described below are simple yet elegant. They should be very easy to understand and with a little practice you should master them. A cube is a three dimensional solid having 6 faces, 12 edges, and corners. All edges of a cube are equal and all the faces are square in shape. That is a solid figure which has 6 faces; each face being a square is called a cube. If each of the six faces be a rectangle, it is called cuboid. A cuboid is also called a rectangular parallelepiped.

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Coded relationship contains problems that involve interpreting a given relationship-string, which is coded in a particular fashion and then matching it with the relationship mentioned in the question.

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The number which has base 2 is known as binary number. Binary number is made by 0’s and 1’s complements. So, coded binary number consists of two processes. One is conversion of binary to decimal and another is decimal to binary.

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The hands of a clock can have a maximum angle of 180o between them. When this happens, both the hands represent a straight line.

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As we know that various objects possess various properties so we can group those objects who have properties common to all. This phenomena of grouping various objects on basis of their common properties is known as classification. Classification allows us to make a systematic and a homogeneous group out of a heterogeneous group.

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In this type of reasoning, each question contains two statements and the students have to find out relationship between the two statements. Here the students have to test whether the statements are related to each other or not. Read them and choose the best option that describes the relationship between them. These types of problems judge the reasoning and analytical power of the students. So, students are advised to read the statements very well to arrive at a particular conclusion.

### Introduction

The solar year consists of 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes. In Julian calendar, the year arranged in 47 BC by Julius Caesar was taken as being of 365¼ days and in order to get rid of odd quarter of a day, an extra day was added once in every fourth year called Leap year. This was also called Bissextile.

### Introduction

In blood relation test, questions are asked about the blood relations of a group of persons or a small family or between two to three people. In these type of questions, an examiner normally checks the ability of a candidate to correlate different relationships. These questions are normally very tricky as we have to concentrate on each and every single statement and words in the question. After understanding the question, we have to make a clear picture of the well-defined blood relations in the question by comparing with our self so that we can easily find the answers to the questions.

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In this chapter, we will be given an assertion followed by a reason to support it. We have to judge the truth of both the sentences and have to ensure that whether the reason given truly supports the assertion or not.

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Artificial language is a part of analytical reasoning where decoding of the meaning of some artificial language is the main task. Some predefined artificial languages with their meaning will be given in advance. By referring to that, we have to decode the original meaning of an artificial word from the given options.

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Arithmetical reasoning contains calculation with special sense of reasoning. This reasoning chapter normally contains all the chapters from quantitative aptitude. So, it is one of the most interesting chapters in reasoning, because it contains both aptitude and reasoning. Arithmetic reasoning may contain the following chapters of aptitude.

### Introduction

Analytical reasoning deals with variety of information. Based on some particular conditions, there will be various logical puzzles and we need to solve them.

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If the relationship between one pair of words is similar to another pair of words then we say that both the pair of words is analogous to each other. In simple words, the relationship between two words must be same for other words associated with them too.

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Alphanumeric sequence is an important chapter in reasoning and the questions on this subject are asked in almost all the competitive exams. Alphanumeric sequence is a sequence which consists of both alphabets and numbers. In this sequence, we can also add some symbols along with alphabets and numbers.