A few movements were launched which aimed to spread modern education and removing social practices like the polygamy. The Mohammedan Literacy Society of Calcutta was founded by Abdul Latif in 1863. It was one of the earliest organisations that promoted modern education among the upper and middle class Muslims. It also played an important role in promoting Hindu-Muslim unity.
Shariatullah of Bengal, leader of the Faraizi movement in Bengal, took up the cause of the peasants. He also condemned the evils of the caste system among the Muslims.
There were several other socio-religious movements which in one way or the other helped the national awakening of the Muslims. Mirza Ghulam Ahmed had founded the Ahmediya Movement in 1899. Under this movement, a number of schools and colleges were opened all over the country. They emphasised the universal and humanitarian character of Islam. They favoured the unity among Hindus and Muslims.
One of the greatest poets of Modern India, Muhammad Iqbal (1876-1938) influenced the philosophical and religious outlook of several generations through his poetry.