In 1905, Viceroy Curzon ordered the partition of the province of Bengal supposedly for improvements in administrative efficiency in the huge and populous region. It also had justifications due to increasing conflicts between Muslims and Hindu regimes in Bengal.
However, the Indians viewed the partition as an attempt by the British to disrupt the growing national movement in Bengal and divide the Hindus and Muslims of the region. The partition outraged Bengalis. The government failed to consult Indian public opinion and the action appeared to reflect the British resolve to divide and rule.
Wide spread agitation ensued and the Congress, both the Moderates and the Radicals, advocated boycotting British products under the banner of Swadeshi Movement.