1. Explain causes which led to national consciousness among Indians during the British regime?
Anti-colonial movement, political and administrative unity under British rule, revival of ancient India glory.
2. Why was British government interested in the formation of Indian National Congress in 1885?
To give a safe and constitutional outlet to Indians, so that their anger would not develop into agitation against British.
3. What were the differences between the Moderates and the Radicals?
Moderates believed in petition and requesting the British government to solve the grievances whereas Radicals believed in organizing mass protests, criticizing government policies, boycotting foreign goods and use of Swadeshi goods.
4. Why did the Indian leaders support the British during the First World War?
In the hope that the British government would provide Constitutional powers to the Indians after winning the war.
5. Why was the Khilafat movement against British rule?
Because of the division of Ottoman Empire and insult of Khalipha.
6. How was Satyagraha different from the other protests?
Satyagraha means a non-violent insistence for truth and justice. Other protests were violent and aggressive in nature.
7. Why was Simon Commission boycotted by Indians?
The Commission had no Indian members.
8. Why did Gandhi withdraw the non-cooperation movement?
Outbreak of violence during the movement caused its suspension.
9. How was the approach of revolutionaries different from the others?
They chose the path of armed movement against the Britishers. Others were not in favour of this.
10. What do you understand by ‘Purna-Swaraj’?
Purna-Swaraj means complete independence and sovereignty.
11. How was communal divide in India promoted by the British?
By promoting separate electorates for Muslims, Sikhs, etc. and encouraging Muslim League to raise communal demands.
12. Write two basic features of the Act of 1935?
Princely States and the British Provinces all had to come under All India Federation. It restricted the power of legislature, i.e. no control over defense and foreign relations.
13. What was the demand of Muslim League?
Muslim League demanded a separate nation for Muslims, i.e. Pakistan.
14. What led to the participation of Congress in the elections after 1935?
To gain constitutional power and change the British laws, Congress decided to participate in the elections.
15. Why were the Indian leaders concerned about the British presence in India during the Second World War?
Because British presence in India could lead to Japanese invasion during Second World War.
16. What were the major causes of the partition of India?
The communal divide, demand of Muslim League and lack of consensus between the political parties.