1. Describe the bond between the feudal lord and his vassal?

The lord and his vassal shared a personal bond which was established through an elaborate ceremony. The vassal would take a vow to serve the lord while the lord protects the vassal in return.

2. Who were the serfs?

Serfs were dependent peasants of Medieval Europe, tied to the soil and completely under the authority of the lord.

3. Justify: The period from the 10th to the 12th century witnessed a revival of trade and growth of town life.

Yes. Due to the increase in agricultural yield, people could now sell the excess produce and buy products of long distance trade.

4. Justify: From the 13th century onwards there was a reversal in the trend of growth of feudal economy.

Yes. The reduction in labor services and technological stagnation led to lesser agricultural produce.

5. Justify: The cultural life before the 10th century was a prosperous time for learning and the arts in Europe.

No. Education was a privilege of the few with the masses given no education, and learning was dominated by blind faith.

6. Give reasons why Mecca arose into prominence?

Mecca rose into prominence because it lay on the junction of some major trade routes and it was a place of an important religious shrine, first with the diverse Arabian clans and tribes, and later with the spread of Islam.

7. Enlist at least 5 fields in which we can see the contribution of Arab Civilisation?

Astrology, Medicine, Natural Sciences, Literature, Mathematics, Architecture.

8. Fill in the blanks:

(a) In the South, it was the ...... Dynasty that held way over most of the Peninsular India.

(b) The Mughal System was based on the smooth functioning of the ...... and ...... Systems.

(c) The ...... were money changers who issued hundis or Bills of Exchange.

(d) The Bhakti Movement stressed on oneness with God though ......

  1. Chola
  2. Mansabdari, Jagirdari
  3. sarafs or shroffs
  4. personal devotion