1. Define feudalism. Give at least two features of feudalism.

Feudalism is defined as a system in which people were given land and protection by lords in return for their labor. Its two features were: (a) The workers worked and fought for their lords. (b) The king was the most powerful feudal chief.

2. What were the main ideas of Renaissance?

The spirit of humanism, rationalism and inquiry.

3. Enlist at least two teachings of Martin Luther which influenced reforms in the Church.

(a) Martin Luther advocated for salvation through faith on Jesus Christ and not through the blind faith on the church. (b) The Bible was the only source of religious authority.

4. Who discovered the sea route to India?

  1. Bartholomew Diaz
  2. Vasco da Gama
  3. Columbus
  4. None of these

(ii) Vasco da Gama

5. Which of the following was not a result of the voyages of discovery?

  1. Setting up of colonies in Asia and Africa
  2. Expansion of European commerce
  3. Rise in the prosperity of the colonies
  4. Beginning of slave trade

(iii) Rise in the prosperity of the colonies

6. Name at least two contributions of the Renaissance in the field of Science?

(a) The emphasis on reason than on blind faith. (b) Scientific inquiry based on observation and experimentation.

7. Enlist at least three discoveries which helped the Europeans to find new sea routes?

Compass, astrolabe and the art of map making.

8. Identify the significant change in the society due to the Industrial Revolution?

The society became unequal and was divided into two groups of people - the capitalist or the bourgeoisie and the worker or the proletariat.

9. In how many colonies was America divided?

  1. 13
  2. 14
  3. 15
  4. 16

(i) 13

10. The Third Estate in France comprised of the:

  1. Nobility
  2. Clergy
  3. Commoners
  4. Monarchy

(iii) Commoners

11. German Unification was successfully carried out under the leadership of:

  1. Cavour
  2. Mazzini
  3. Bismarck
  4. Garibaldi

(iii) Bismarck

12. 'The Glorious Revolution of 1688 was a source of inspiration for the world'. Justify this statement?

The Glorious Revolution proved to be a source of inspiration for the world because the Parliament was able to replace the autocratic rule of James II with a constitutional form of government without shedding any blood.

13. Enlist at least two similarities between the American War of Independence and the French Revolution?

(a) Both the Revolutions helped assert the rights of the people and spoke against exploitation. (b) Both popularised the feeling of nationalism all over the world.

14. The Russian Revolution was inspired by the ideology of socialism. Explain briefly?

The French and Renaissance ideas like equality, freedom of speech and democracy, along with the writings of Marx helped in strengthening the idea of socialism. It advocated the control of the ownership of the means of production in the hands of the state which would give birth to an equal society. This influenced people and led to political awakening of the people, especially the workers resulting in the Russian Revolution.

15. Fill in the blanks:

(a) ....... expressed its belief in the creative potential of human beings.

(b) Ignatius Loyal founded the ......

  1. Renaissance scholars
  2. Society of Jesus