1. Which two natural resources played an important role in the birth of Industrial Revolution in England?

Coal and Iron.

2. How the development in the means of transport and communication assisted the merchants?

They provided a faster and reliable means of transporting raw materials and factory made products to their destination, speeding up business transactions.

3. What were the reason to employ children in coal mines and factories?

Children were employed because their small size helped them move better in the horizontal and narrow coal mines. Plus, they were paid very low wages compared to older men and hence were preferred in factories.

4. Define Imperialism?

Imperialism is defined as the practice of extending control or rule over the political and economic life of another country.

5. Mention two advantages of the growth of transportation in the colonies which helped in the spread of Imperialism?

The two ways were:

(a) It made easier the flow of goods to and from the colonies to the imperial country. (b) Troops could be easily sent to colonies and keep them under control.

6. What was the Slave Trade?

The importing of people from Africa by the Europeans to work as slaves on their plantations in their colonies in America was the Slave Trade.

7. Which of the following was known as the Dark Continent?

  1. Africa
  2. Asia
  3. Europe

(i) Africa

8. Meiji Restoration took place in which country?

  1. Cambodia
  2. Sri Lanka
  3. Japan

(iii) Japan

9. Opium War was fought in?

  1. India
  2. China
  3. Burma

(ii) China

10. Which was not a French colony?

  1. Vietnam
  2. Morocco
  3. Kenya

(iii) Kenya

11. Name at least four Balkan states?

Greece, Romania, Bulgaria, Serbia, Montenegro

12. Which countries formed the Triple Alliance?

Germany, Austria and Italy.

13. Give at least three causes of World War I?

The main causes of World War I were:

  1. The rise of Germany as an industrial nation led to its growing need for raw materials, hence imperialist rivalry for colonies began with England and France.
  2. System of Alliances divided Europe into two hostile camps - Triple Alliance and Triple Entente - leading to tension and conflicts.
  3. The resurgence of nationalism in the Balkan States known as the Pan Slav Movement. People now wanted to be independent and remain under foreign control.

14. Name two countries which adopted dictatorial governments after 1920?

Italy and Germany.

15. What was the main cause of the Great Depression of 1929?

Overproduction resulted in the declining prices of commodities, leading to the fall in share prices. The banks closed down and people lost their lifelong savings. This was the Great depression of 1929.

16. When and where the UN was formally constituted?

The UN was formally constituted on 24 October 1945 at a conference held in San Francisco, USA.