Communication system contributes to the development of the economy, social relationships and also helps in promoting cultural unity. Internationally, it brings diverse people of the world close to one another.
In the event of any impending calamity, accident or emergency instant means of communication flash the news across the globe so that relief can be rushed to the spot immediately.
It is the most commonly used mode of communication in India. The postal services play a vital role in the rural areas of the country. About 99% of the villages are enjoying postal services today.
At present about 1.55 lakh post offices are providing postal services covering every part of the country. In tune with the rest of the world the Indian postal services are also being modernised.
Besides these, satellite money order scheme was introduced in 1994 as a pilot project for providing services to hilly, backward and remote areas from six principal cities. International mail services carried by air and sea is an important step in linking the foreign countries with India.
It is the modern device for the communication at individual and mass level. Telegraph, Telephone; Talex and Fax are the main means of telecommunication. By the end of 2004-05, India was the 10th largest telecom network in terms of number of phones.
1. Telegraph is comparatively an old mean for providing quick communication in event of any emergency. At present about forty thousand telegraph offices have been working in the country.
2. Telephone: There has been a very fast progress in telephone facilities. As on 31 March 2006, the network comprises of 142.09 million telephone connections and over 2.34 (February, 2006) million Public Call Office (PCOs). There are over 62.90 million cellular subscribers in the country and the cellular custormer base is growing at the rate of over two million per month.
Telephone services have been expanding very rapidly in the country. STD (Subscriber Trunk Dialing) facilities are available to all the big and small towns of the country. Fully automatic International Subscriber Dialing (ISD) service is available to almost all the countries.
3. Telex: Telex services make possible to send information in printed form. More than 200 cities of India enjoy the service. Use of satellite has revolutionized the Telecommunication system today.
Radio and television are the electronic media of mass communication. They play an important role in individual and social life.
Radio is a powerful medium which provide all sorts of useful information, news and variety of entertainment. There are about 223 radio broad casting stations in the country and provide services to 91.42% of the area and 99.13% of the total population. Now, FM Radio services have given a new face to radio transmission.
Television service was started in 1959 in India. However, the real expansion of T.V. Service began after 1980. Only recently several channels on television have been made available to private parties. This has promoted keen competition to improve the quality of programme even of Doordarshan.
Doordarshans network consist of (i) 64 Doordarshan Kendra (studio centres); 1400 transmitters (1134 transmitters for DD1, 153 transmitters for DD News, 109 transmitters for regional services and 1 digital transmitters each at Delhi, Chennai, Kolkata, and Mumbai). DD1 provide services 79% of area and about 91% of the total population.
Cinema is yet another mean of mass communication. It entertains millions of people everyday.
Newspapers, periodicals and journals fall in the category of print media. Print media expanded very rapidly after independence. There were 62,550 daily newspapers, periodicals and different journals in Indian languages on 31 March, 2006.
These were 6,800 dailies, 369 tri/bi-weeklies, 21,453 weeklies, 8,227 fortnightlies, 18,545 monthlies, 4,340 quarterlies, 584 annuals, and 2,232 of the other periodicity. The largest number of newspapers and periodicals registered in any Indian language is in Hindi (24,017), second is English (8,768).