Distribution of Abiotic Resources

Abiotic resources include land resources, water resources and mineral resources.

Land Resources

India covers an area of 32,87,263 sq km. According to area size, it is the seventh largest country of the world after Russia, Canada, China, U.S.A., Brazil and Egypt. This vast size itself is the most important resource.

About 30 per cent of area is covered by the mountains which are source of scenic beauty, perennial rivers, home of forests and wildlife. About 43 per cent of land area is plain which is highly suitable for agriculture. Remaining about 27 percent under plateaus is the store house of minerals and metals.

Water Resources

India is fortunate to have large water resources. Diversity in resources is the result of diversity in land forms in the form of glaciers, surface rivers and underground water, rains and oceans.

The average annual rainfall is estimated at 117 cm. Rivers are major source of surface water in India. The Indus, the Ganga, the Brahamputra carry about 60 per cent of the total surface water.

Replenishable groundwater potential in India is about 434 billion cubic metres. Today, over 70 per cent of the population uses ground water for its domestic needs and more than half of irrigation is obtained from this source.

Mineral Resources

India is very rich in mineral resources and has the potential to become an industrial power. It possesses large reserves of iron ore, extensive deposits of coal, mineral oil, rich deposits of bauxite and mica.

Jharkhand, Orissa and Chhattisgarh possess large concentration of mineral deposits, accounting for nearly three-fourths of the country’s coal deposits. Other important minerals found in our country are iron ore, manganese, mica, bauxite and radioactive minerals.


  • India is the seventh largest area sized country of the world.
  • The average annual rainfall is estimated at 117 cm.
  • The Indus, the Ganges and the Brahamputra river systems carry 60 percent of the total surface water available in the country.
  • Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh and Orissa possess large reserves of iron ore, bauxite and mica.