India accounts for about 10 per cent of the production of fruits in the world. It leads the world in the production of mango, banana, sapota and lemons. A large variety of fruits are grown in India.
Mango, bananas, citrus fruits pineapple, papaya, guava, sapota, jack fruit, lichi and grapes are tropical and subtropical fruits. The fruit of temperate areas are apple, pear, peach, plum, apricot, almond and walnut which are grown mostly in the mountainous areas of the country. The important fruits of arid zone of India are aonla, ber, pomegranate and figs.
Mango is the most important among fruit crops covering about 39 per cent of the area and account for 23 per cent of the total fruit production in the country. More than one-half or about 54 per cent of the world’s mango is produced in India. The mango tree grows throughout the country especially in Uttar Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. Dussahari and Alphonso varieties of mango are in great demand in foreign countries. The country exports such varieties to earn foreign exchange.
In terms of area Citrus fruits rank next only to mango. Oranges and lemons are grown in Assam, Maharashtra, Punjab, and Tamil Nadu. Undulating sloppy terrain is most suitable for the growth of citrus fruits.
India is ranking first in the world in the Banana production. Banana ranks third in areal coverage and are grown mainly in Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. It is also grown in West Bengal, Orissa and Assam.
Apple is the fourth major fruit crop, mainly grown in the Himalayan region of the country. Guava is largely produced in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, whereas pineapple is produced in Assam, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Tripura, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Karnataka.