Soil is defined as upper layer of the earth composed of loose surface material. It is a mixture of many substances including endless variety of minerals, remnants of plants and animals, water and air.
It is the end product of continuing interaction between the parent material, local climate, plant and animal organisms and elevation of land. Since each of the elements varies over space, soils also differ from place to place.
Soil is an important segment of ecosystem, as it serves an anchorage for plants and source of nutrients. Thus, soil is the seat, the medium and fundamental raw material for plant growth.
Through its relative fertility, it affects man’s economic activities and shapes the destiny of the country. When the soil is lost, property and culture are also lost. Therefore, it is a valuable national and fundamental earth resources of the country.
The soils of India are broadly divided into six types: