India's Relations with USA and Russia
India has always shared a very cordial relations with USA and Russia, both countries has helped and appreciated the India's efforts for development. India and the US are two great democracies. But for a long time, the relationship between them was far from smooth. Indo Soviet Union relationship was based on several common grounds from the beginning.
Relations in the Cold War Years
The relations between India and the US failed to achieve their full potential. Many factors were responsible in determining the actual course. This was due to the preoccupation of the United States with the containment of communism which started the Cold War between the US and the Soviet Union created a new crisis in Indo-US relationship.
The US through Cold war brought rivalry to India’s doorsteps by forming two military organisation SEATO and CENTO with Pakistan who joined these alliances as a key member.
The Bangladesh episode created a new crisis in Indo-US relationship.
American Aid to India
There was a slow start to the economic assistance that India received from the US. India's food production at the time of independence was insufficient to feed its millions; its industrial and service sector were also quite backward.
That is why, India was dependent on other countries for bilateral assistance. The first of the many food aid shipments to India from the US started in 1951, the US had provided large bilateral developmental assistance to India.
Contemporary Indo-US Relations
Indian skilled professionals in communication & information technology projected India to US in a positive light, India opening its economy in the 1990s, investment by American companies rather than the aid came to be looked up as more important.
The role of the young Indians in the Information Technology (IT), computer hardware and software industry added a new dimension to the trade between India and the US.
IT professionals who settled down in the US became the most successful single ethnic group there. They helped create a different image of India in America.
Relations with Soviet Union
Relationship between India and the USSR was based on several common factors. India having won freedom from the British the anti-imperialism ideology of the Soviet Union compared well with each other.
The political relationship started improving after Soviet Communist Party’s leader's visit to India in 1955. The terms of Soviet aid were favourable to India, Military supplies to India emerged as a prominent symbol of Indo Soviet friendship.
Indo-Russian relations attained a new high and momentum with the signing of Declaration on Strategic Partnership during the visit of Russian President Vladimir Putin.
The Indian Prime Minister Mr. Vajpayee’s November 2001 visit resulted in the signing of the Declaration on International Terrorism; this declaration condemned the double standards adopted by the west on terrorism.
Russia is not a superpower anymore its significance for India cannot be underestimated, being a permanent member of the Security Council of the UN, it has the power of veto.
Russia is reliable supplier of high quality military equipment. Russia supplies more than seventy per cent of India's defence need including the state-of-the-art weapon systems and the technologies.
Russia's oil and gas reserves and its expertise in thermal hydropower and nuclear energy sector will be crucial in ensuring India’s energy security in future.