Pressure or interest groups are organized groups, having common and social interests concerned with influencing decision making by putting pressure from outside. Pressure groups have voluntary membership and are found in every country.
Pressure Groups is controlled mainly by five factors:
- the pattern of political institutions
- the nature of party system
- the political culture and attitudes of leaders and people
- the nature of the issues and problems confronted
- the character and type of the concerned interest groups
Classification of Pressure Groups in India
(a) Professional Pressure Groups: includes the employees of a particular occupation or profession for the protection of their interests.
(b) Socio Cultural Pressure Groups: which are concerned with community service and the promotion of the interests of the whole community.
(c) Institutional Pressure Groups: influence the government policies in their favour without directly getting involved in the political system.
(d) Adhoc pressure Groups: come into existence for a very Democracy at work short period with the objective of pressuring the government for a specific task.
Role of Pressure Groups
- Act as a link and source of communication between the masses and the political parties.
- Sensitize the public towards various socio-economic issues thereby educating them politically.
- To produce very effective leadership.
- As a training platform for future political leaders.
- Bridges the gap between various traditional values in the society.
Methods of Pressure Groups
Methods are dependent on the nature of political system and the type of society in the country:
- Mass media both electronic & print is used by the pressure groups.
- They try to mould or influence the public opinion by using various publicity measures.
- The pressure groups through lobbying try to exert their pressure on the government.
- Method of building enlightened public opinion and creating a good sense of compassion and reasoning.