Bacteria - Smallest Organisms

Bacteria are the simplest and smallest organisms found on earth. They are found in almost every place like air, water, soil and even inside our body. Their body is made up of single cell and size is from 0.2 to 100 microns (1 micron = 1/1000 millimeter).

The central element is not covered by any membrane in the cells of bacteria. There is a cell wall or membrane outside the cell. Bacteria are mostly divided into three shapes

  1. long shape bacteria
  2. circular
  3. serpentine (lymph) bacteria - curvy like snakes

Bacteria have their own importance. Some bacteria are helpful and some are harmful.

Benefits from Bacteria

1. Decomposition of dead - many organisms die every day. They decompose dead bodies and leave in nature. This decomposition is reused by plants.

2. Manure making in soil - bacteria found in soil form chemicals like ammonia and nitrate which are useful for plants.

3. Merge with plants - some bacteria merge with plants to change nitrogen to nitrate and give natural manure to the plants. Some special plants are - peas, pulses, beans, etc.

4. Cleaning water - some bacteria clean water by decomposing dust, dirt and flowing waste in water.

5. Source of digestion - some bacteria live in the food pipe of cows, goats, flies or some insects etc. they help in the digestion of cellulose (a part of the eaten plant).

6. Food industries - some bacteria are used in food industries to form some of the food items like lactobacillus which help in the preparation of curd from milk. Vinegar is also prepared by the activities of bacteria.

7. Sources of medicines - many antibiotic medicines increase the immunity power in body. Immunity power helps in fighting the diseases. Some medicines are prepared by various bacteria. Some vitamins and hormones are prepared with the help of bacteria.

Harmful Bacteria

1. Cause of many diseases - many bacteria cause diseases like tuberculosis, dysentery, tetanus, whooping cough, etc.

2. Destroys food - any food items are destroyed by bacteria. For example - milk, fruits, vegetables, etc. get rotten by bacteria.