The State Legislature performs the following categories of functions.

Legislative Functions

The Assembly has the sole right to legislate. All the laws must be passed by it. Where there is a bicameral legislature, the ordinary Bills can be introduced in any of the Houses. A Bill passed by the Legislative Assembly is sent to the Legislative Council which has to pass it or to return it with recommendations to the Legislative Assembly. If the Legislative Assembly passes that Bill once again either with recommendations of the Council or without those, it shall be deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.

As regards, Money Bills, these can be introduced only in the Legislative Assembly. After the Assembly passes the Money Bill, it goes to the Legislative Council which has to pass it or return the Bill to the Assembly with its recommendations within 14 days of the receipt of the Bill. Even if the Assembly rejects the recommendations of the Council, it will be deemed to have been passed by both the Houses.

Once the Bill is passed by the Legislature, it is sent to the Governor for his or her assent. He or She cannot withhold the assent on the Money Bill but can send back an ordinary bill for reconsideration or can reserve any of the bills for consideration by the President.

Control over the Executive

The State Legislature keeps control over the executive. The Council of Ministers is responsible to Vidhan Sabha collectively.

It remains in office so long as it enjoys the confidence of the House. The Council of Ministers is removed, if the Vidhan Sabha adopts a motion of no-confidence against it.

Moreover, The State Legislature keeps checks on the government by asking questions and supplementary questions, moving adjournment motions and calling attention notices.

Electoral Functions

The elected members of the Legislative Assembly are members of the Electoral College for the election of the President of India. The members of the Vidhan Sabha also elect the members of the Rajya Sabha from their respective States.

Moreover, they elect one-third members of the Legislative Council of their own State.

Functions related to Constitutional Amendments

There are important functions of the State Legislature related to the amendment of the Constitution. A constitutional amendment requires the support of a special majority of each House of the Parliament as well as ratification by not less than half of the States where the State Legislatures ratify the amendments.