India is a federation having governments at two levels: state level and union or central level. Every citizen is related to and influenced by the governments functioning at both the levels. All the three branches of government, executive, legislature and judiciary exist and function at both the levels.

All States run many schemes and projects which impact directly or indirectly. A critical part of these are the welfare projects implemented by various State governments. Many times States also adapt Union Governments welfare schemes and implement them.

For example, in Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan innovative efforts are being made for education of out-of-school children through residential bridge courses. This
includes mentally challenged, hearing or visually impaired and physically challenged children. These efforts have enabled these children to join mainstream schools. The educational practices followed include education through play, and use of computer aided learning processes.

As part of the Centre’s Mid-Day Meal Scheme, in Uttar Pradesh, hot cooked meals are being provided to children in more than 95,000 government primary schools. Elected village Pradhans are responsible for implementing the scheme in schools. The State tries to provide a varied menu including wheat, rice, vegetables, soya and pulses (dal).

Maharashtra is implementing a School Sanitation and Hygiene Education programme, within which school children are leading the change. The children who are called swachhata doots are bringing awareness on sanitation and hygiene in schools, families and communities. This programme is run by Maharashtra State Government as part of Union Government’s Total Sanitation Campaign.

Government of Nagaland is leading the way in sharing with the community the management and control of government institutions in social sectors such as education, health and electricity.