According to the Constitution, there has to be a High Court for every state. A High Court may have more than one state under its jurisdiction. For example, Guwahati High Court acts as a common High Court for the states of Assam, Meghalaya, Arunachal Pradesh, Nagaland, Mizoram, Manipur and Tripura.
Each High Court has a Chief Justice and Judges. The number of Judges in each High Court is determined by the President from time to time.
The Chief Justice and Judges of High Courts are appointed by the President. For appointment of the Chief Justice of the High Court, the President consults the Chief Justice of Supreme Court, whereas for the Judges, he or she also consults the Chief Justice of the concerned High Court. The Governor of the concerned State is also consulted for appointment of the Judges of the High Court. Judges can be transferred from one High Court to the other by the President on the advice of the Chief Justice of India.
Qualifications for High Court Judge
- should be a citizen of India
- should have held a judicial office in the territory of India for at least 10 years OR should have been an advocate in one or more High Courts for at least ten years continuously without break
The Judges of High Court hold office till they attain the age of 65 years. However, a Chief Justice or a Judge can resign.
The Chief Justice and Judges are paid salaries and are also entitled to such privileges and allowances as determined by Parliament. After retirement, they may practice as advocates either in Supreme Court or in any High Court except the High Courts in which they have served as Judges.
A Judge can be removed from office through an impeachment process by parliament on grounds of proved misbehavior or incapacity.
The High Court has original and appellate jurisdictions.
Under the original jurisdiction, certain types of cases may be brought directly before a High Court. The High Court exercises original jurisdiction for the enforcement of Fundamental Rights and other legal rights. In this respect High Court has the power to issue writs. These writs go a long way in protecting the rights of the individual against encroachment by the legislature, the executive or any other authority. The High Court may also hear election petitions under its original jurisdiction challenging election of a member of State Legislature.
Under appellate jurisdiction, High Courts hear appeals against the judgments of the subordinate courts at the district level.
In civil cases, an appeal may be filed before the High Court against the judgment of a District Judge. In criminal matters, appeal may be made before a High Court against the judgment of a Sessions Court, where the sentence of imprisonment exceeds seven years. Death sentence awarded by a lower court has to be confirmed by the High Court.
The High Court exercises powers of control and superintendence over all subordinate courts falling within its jurisdiction. The High Court is a Court of Record. Hence, all the subordinate courts follow the judgments of the High Court. High Courts may also punish for contempt or disrespect of the Court.