The Preamble to any Constitution is a brief introductory statement that conveys the guiding principles of the document. The values expressed in the Preamble are expressed as objectives of the Constitution. These are: sovereignty, socialism, secularism, democracy, republican character of Indian State, justice, liberty, equality, fraternity, human dignity and the unity and integrity of the Nation.
Being sovereign means having complete political freedom and being the supreme authority. It implies that India is internally all powerful and externally free. It is free to determine for itself without any external interference (either by any country or individual) and nobody is there within to challenge its authority. This feature of sovereignty gives us the dignity of existence as a nation in the international community.
The Constitution directs the governments and the people to ensure a planned and coordinated social development in all fields. It directs to prevent concentration of wealth and power in a few hands. The Constitution has specific provisions that deal with inequalities in the Chapters on Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of State Policy.
Secularism implies that India is not guided by any one religion or any religious considerations. However, the Indian state is not against religions. It allows all its citizens to profess, preach and practise any religion they follow. At the same time, it ensures that the state does not have any religion of its own. Constitution strictly prohibits any discrimination on the ground of religion.
As a form of government it derives its authority from the will of the people. The people elect the rulers of the country and the elected representatives remain accountable to the people. Democracy is based on the principles of rule of law, inalienable rights of citizens, independence of judiciary, free and fair elections and freedom of the press.
India is not only a democratic nation but it is also a republic. The most important symbol of being a republic is the office of the Head of the State, i.e. the President who is elected and who is not selected on the basis of heredity, as is found in a system with monarchy.
The political freedom granted to Indian citizens has to be instrumental in the creation of a new social order, based on socio-economic justice. Justice must be availed to every citizen. This ideal of a just and egalitarian society remains as one of the foremost values of the Indian Constitution.
The Preamble prescribes liberty of thought, expression, belief, faith and worship as one of the core values.
The Constitution ensures equality of status and opportunity to every citizen for the development of the best in him/her.
Fraternity stands for the spirit of common brotherhood among all the people of India. In the absence of fraternity, a plural society like India stands divided. Therefore, to give meaning to all the ideals like justice, liberty and equality, the Preamble lays great emphasis on fraternity.
It ensures equal participation of every individual in all the processes of democratic governance.
To maintain the independence of the country intact, the unity and integrity of the nation is very essential. Therefore, the stress has been given on fostering unity amongst all the inhabitants of the country.
Our Constitution prescribes some duties to be performed by the citizens. It is true that these duties are not enforceable in the court of law like the fundamental rights are, but these duties are to be performed by citizens.