1. Why is peace and security considered so important?
Because it is a condition where individuals, institutions, regions, nations and the world move ahead without any threat. In this condition regions or nations are generally more stable domestically, likely to be democratically governed and respectful to human rights. Conflict not only generates threat and fear, but also hampers economic, social, or political advancement.
2. Fill in the blanks:
(a) disturbances or conflicts
(b) healthy interpersonal or inter-group or inter-regional or inter-state or international relationships, prosperity in matters of social or economic welfare, the establishment of equality, and a working political order that serves the true interests of all.
(c) by danger or fear, an individual, an institution, a region, a nation or the world.
(d) extremely dangerous threats
3. What are the three basic differences between traditional and new or nontraditional concepts of peace and security?
(i) The new or non-traditional notion of peace and security is much broader and goes beyond military threats to include wide range of dangers and threats to human existence.
(ii) It includes not only regions and nations, but also individuals or communities and the human kind at large.
(iii) According to new understanding, peace and security is to be seen as the precondition to socio-economic development and to the maintenance of human dignity.
(iv) The new notion also includes freedom of individuals from hunger, freedom from wants, diseases and epidemics, environmental degradation, exploitation and subhuman treatment.
4. Why did India need to evolve and adopt a specific approach for both international and internal peace and security?
There is a mutual relationship between democracy and development and peace and security. In the absence of peace and security democracy cannot function and development cannot take place. Citizens can participate in the process of decision-making at different levels only when the peace prevails. Peace is still more essential for development in various areas.
On the other hand peace cannot be achieved in the absence of democracy and development. Democracy is better placed for eliminating conditions that generate public dissatisfaction. Development also promotes peace. It is through development that nations can ensure social and economic progress for the people and improve their quality of life.
5. What has been the contribution of freedom movement in the evolution of an approach to peace and security?
The ideas and views about the approach to ensure peace and security began during freedom movement. The leadership clearly realized that the democratic system after independence can be functional only when a condition of peace and security is maintained. The consensus that emerged for adopting socialistic approach to socio-economic development during freedom struggle was aimed at creating conditions that promote security against internal threats to peace.
6. What is the approach for peace and security mentioned in the Indian Constitution?
The Constitution mentions peace and security in the Chapter on Directive Principles of State Policy. The federal system and the establishment of rural and urban local governments are aimed at eliminating a threat to internal security. At the international level, the Constitution adopted a policy aimed at promotion of international peace and security. It has provisions for the support to all efforts being made at the global or regional level for peace, equitable economic development, promotion of human rights and elimination of terrorism.
7. What according to you would be the most effective methods for ensuring both internal and international peace and security?
The democratic institutions and processes must be strengthened. Efforts should continue to be made to accelerate the pace of socio-economic development in all parts of the country. People must be encouraged to participate in democratic processes and development activities. India must support all international efforts for maintaining peace and security.
8. Fill in the blank:
(a) (i) terrorism, (ii) insurgency, (iii) naxalite movement
(b) inflict dramatic and deadly injury , create an atmosphere of fear
(c) (i) political motives (ii) social and economic justice
9. What are the main strategies being used by the governments to deal with insurgency?
The Government of India has been supporting efforts of all nations to fight terrorism and seeking their support whenever any terrorist attack takes place. As regards the insurgency activities aimed at political objectives, the Government of India is trying to tackle it diplomatically. India has entered into a treaty with Myanmar and very recently Bangladesh to restrain the help and support coming to insurgent movements from those countries.
It is also trying to mount international pressure on Pakistan to do the same. In respect of the Naxalite movement it was realized that it is a more serious issue, having deep socioeconomic dimensions. Efforts are being made to accelerate the pace of development in those areas and to bring the youth in to the mainstream.
10. What steps, according to you, the governments should take to solve the problem of insurgency?
The government should make all efforts for all-round development of all regions of the country. All must have equal opportunity for education and employment. The democratic institutions and processes must be strengthened to provide equal opportunities to participate. Efforts needed at international level are supporting the institutions and processes that are engaged in maintaining international peace and security. Allout efforts are to be made to contain terrorism.
11. What are the basic objectives of Indian Foreign Policy?
(i) Maintenance of freedom in policy formulation
(ii) promotion of international peace and security
(iii) good relationships with other nations and especially with our neighbours
(iv) support to the United Nations
(v) disarmament opposition to colonialism, imperialism and racism
(vi) cooperation among developing nations
12. Why did India adopt the policy of non-alignment?
Non alignment aimed at maintaining national independence in foreign affairs by not joining any of the two military alliances formed by the USA and Soviet Union. Non-alignment was neither neutrality nor non-involvement nor isolationism. The policy of non-alignment provided an opportunity to developing nations for protecting their sovereignty as also retaining their freedom of action during the tension ridden cold war period. The Non-Aligned Movement is providing all member states, regardless of size and importance, an opportunity to participate in global decision making and world politics.
13. Fill in the blanks:
(a) prime architect
(b) peace and security and for peaceful change
(c) peacekeeping operations, disarmament
(d) permanent member