Subordinate Courts

There are subordinate courts at district and sub-divisional levels. There is a Distict and Sessions Judge in each district. Under him or her, there is a hierarchy of judicial officers.

Civil Cases

These cases filed in civil courts pertain to disputes between two or more persons regarding property, breach of agreement or contract, divorce or disputes between landlords and tenants. All these cases are settled by civil courts.

In such civil cases, the court does not award any punishment as violation of law is not involved.

Criminal Cases

Such cases relate to theft, robbery, rape, pick-pocketing, physical murder, etc. These cases are filed in the criminal courts by the police, on behalf of the state, against the accused.

In such cases, if the court finds the accused guilty, he or she is awarded punishment.

Revenue Courts

Board of Revenue exists at the State level. Under it are the Courts of Commissioner, Collector, Tehsildars and Assistant Tehsildars.

The Board of Revenue hears the final appeals against all the lower revenue courts under it. All states do not have a Board of Revenue. Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra have Revenue Tribunals. Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir have Financial Commissioners instead of the Board.