Four principal strategies exist for developing and enhancing productivity and excellence at work:

  1. Employee selection and placement
  2. Training and development
  3. Task design
  4. Performance appraisal and rewards

Together, such activities can contribute substantially to improving productivity at work which ultimately is a key factor in contributing to organizational excellence.

1. Employee Selection and Placement

By selecting only those with high ability and skill levels, high initial motivational levels and then placing them on suitable jobs - organizations can improve the initial quality of at least some of the human inputs which go on to determine excellence at work. Recruitment and selection may also substitute for employee socialization and training. If desirable employees can be secured through a combination of recruitment and socialization, it would ensure organizational success.

2. Training and Development

Training can serve to develop the capabilities not only in the present job but also future jobs. In fact training is an investment in employees (a talent bank) that can be drawn upon in the future. Employee training programmes may take a variety of forms including information presentation techniques (such as lectures), case studies, role play and so forth.

3. Task Design

The effects of task design on productivity and excellence are two-fold. In general increasing the amount of variety, autonomy, responsibility, feedback and task identity (or completeness of task) can improve performance. The important thing then for both individuals and organizations is to understand the need-strength and goals for redesigning the jobs.

4. Performance Appraisal and Rewards

Finally, a variety of methods are available to guide, direct and reward employee-behaviour. Formal performance appraisal and appropriate use of reward system represent two such methods.