The study of psychology deals with important aspects of human behaviour and mental processes. The study of psychology is significant to one’s personal growth and development and for facilitating the process of social development. The way we think, feel and behave with the people and world around us influence our adjustment.
It is a technique to bring peace and tranquility to the human mind. One has to keep on observing the truth that manifests itself and the Low of Nature starts revealing itself. While starting this exploration of truths within you have to abstain from every type of violence, sexual misconduct, speaking lies, and taking any type of intoxicants. If you are generating such defilement it becomes impossible to go to the deeper levels of mind.
Maharshi Mahesh Yogi has propounded (developed) a simple system of meditation called Transcendental Meditation (TM). Meditation in general, helps in regulating thoughts and establishing a sense of peace in the mind of the particener. There are many types of meditation in India. Some people meditate using OM, some focus on Jyoti, some by worship an idol. Concentration is involved in all these meditations which make them strenuous.
The basic tenets of Art of Living and the Science of Living (Jeevan Vigyan) are the same: Let our body, mind and soul be in total harmony. A hundred years ago Sri Paramhansa Yogananda introduced the concept of Art of Living. The essence of his teachings is that to lead a more integrated humane and spiritual life we need discipline and control of mind. It gives certain practical methods for the uniform development of mind and soul. These include taking balanced diet, regular exercise, practice of meditation, studying religious literature and leading a pious life.
At present we are living in the age of technology, industrialization and urbanization. The world is becoming very competitive. The Indian society has become very complex and fast moving. All these cause stress and strain resulting in many diseases like high blood pressure, insomnia, diabetes and heart attack.
Sri Aurobindo says that two systems are simultaneously active in the organization of the being and its parts: a concentric system and a vertical system. The concentric system is like a series of rings or sheaths. The outer most circle is comprised of awareness of physical body, awareness of vital (pranic) body or sheath and awareness of mental sheath. They are interconnected.
Personality development moves from annamaya kosha to the pure consciousness gradually removing all the five covers that mask it. Regular eating habits, right kind of food, all types of exercises and games, jogging, running, walking and Asanas facilitate the development of Annamaya Kosha.
Yoga was compiled in a concise form by Sage Patanjali. This compilation is called Yoga Sutra. It tells us about the nature of human mind and its functions. It analyses the causes of turbulence and suggests the ways of overcoming them. It enlightens on how to reach the state of oneness with energy or Supreme Consciousness that pervades the entire universe.
A poet has said:
Heights that great men reached and kept were not achieved in a single flight. They, when their companions slept strove upward in the night.
We, in our respective field, can make a resolution to ourselves that whatever we do, it will be of excellent quality. May it be teaching or typing, plumbing or fitting. Yoga can train the body and intellect for development of self to achieve excellence and competence in action.
Everybody feels that he or she should become a happy and successful person. Our happiness and success depends on the pattern of our attitude, thinking and behavior. Yoga assures us that our dream can be fulfilled provided we acquire certain healthy attitudes and habits of thinking and living. The ancient wisdom can be turned into some practical hints for joyous and effective living.
Human beings have a self. Ordinarily we use the word ‘Self’ in the sense of ego but the term ‘self’ does not mean merely the ego. According to Indian thought the ego in us is the actor, knower and experiencer. That which performs all the functions of body and mind, is generally known ‘I’ or ‘Ego’, but it is only the reflection of the absolute called Brahman or pure consciousness.
Yoga compares the mind with a lake. When agitated and restless, the lake can not reflect the sky. Only when it is calm and undisturbed, it can mirror the sky. In the same way, a calm and poised mind can reflect the universal energy. The final aim of meditation is to gain the vision of truth, to realize the oneness with all life and to enjoy peace and bliss.
Sit on the floor with both legs stretched straight in front of you and take a few deep breaths. Exhale and extend the hands to catch the toes, keep spine and the legs straight. Extend the spine and keep the trunk close to the extended legs, Pull the trunk forward and touch the forehead to the knees and gradually rest the elbows on the floor. After you have gained flexibility, you will be able to have grip of the soles of your feet, resting the chin on the knee.
The practice of yoga involves attending to the functioning at different levels of existence. Techniques to gain mastery over body, prana, and mind - diet, yogasanas, at body level, breathing practices and Pranayamas at Prana level and meditation at mental level have been developed. By following these practices one can remain fit, active and energetic without any medicine.
"One who is moderate in his diet, activities, exercise and duty, one whose periods of sleep and wakefulness are moderate, Yoga drives away his ailments."
Body and mind are two parts of a whole. If mind is happy, we do our work actively and energetically. If the body is healthy, the mind also remains radiant, alert and enthusiastic. The Yoga school of thought tells how to facilitate the body - mind functioning so that one may enjoy happiness, peace and fulfillment in life.
According to World Commission on Environment and Development which is also popularly known as Brundtlandt Commission, sustainable development is defined as "development which meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs".
The environment plays a vital role in determining our well-being. We live in an environment and the quality of our life depends on the quality of the surrounding environment. Today, various types of pollution (e.g., water, air) are creating stress for the people. A large number of diseases come from the environment in which we live.
When organizations meet the expectations of the people every one benefits i.e. owners, employees, customers and local communities in which they operate. Then they are considered effective. However, when they exceed the minimum standards of effectiveness they may be considered to have achieved excellence.
Performing a task in an organization often involves contributions by many people. It is a social activity. Virtually any kind of work requires social interaction with several individuals. The salesman interacts with his customers, the doctor with his patients, the supervisor with his subordinates and the teacher with students. Further, most workers are members of one or more work groups with whom they may interact more frequently.
Climate is the atmosphere of an organization, a relatively enduring quality of its internal environment, which is experienced by the members and influences their performance. It conveys the impression people have about the internal environment within which they work. It may also be viewed as the degree to which organizational rules are reinforced by the administrative component. It also represents the attitudes of the organizational members toward the organization itself.
An organization is a social unit which is created with a specific purpose. The systems approach recognizes that organizations have unique properties, capabilities and its components hold mutual relationships. A system may be either closed or open. A closed system does not have any interaction with the external environment. Modern organizations are more or less open systems.
It is necessary to understand the world of work. The world of work comprises unlimited number of occupations. For example, if you want to be a teacher then you should be clear that teaching profession in itself comprises of so many types, having different qualifications for different levels.
Currently education in India is spreading at a fast rate. The increase in the number of educated persons has already upset the employment position in the country and the number of failures in higher education is on the rise year after year. Keeping this in mind the need for special training is felt, because we still need competent persons, in every field of work.
The present day world is highly competitive. Day-by-day we witness new opportunities emerging in the market. To compare with competition and opportunities the need for preparation of vocational choice as well as vocational role is felt at an early age.
It is important to make job decisions consistent with one’s abilities, aptitudes and interests. These concepts are also related to choices of study in different grades or different stages of education, co-curricular activities, hobbies, learning some special skills and so on.
Interest may be defined as a tendency to choose one activity in preference to another, or to seek out an activity or object. It implies preferences or likes and dislikes for specific activity or a group of specific activities such as lawyer, physician, engineer, musician, artist, etc.
We have only twenty-four hours in a day to perform all the activities. We generally fail to organize activities according to the time available. This creates a lot of pressure, tension and frustration. This happens because we do not allot a fixed time for any activities. This habit often results in doing inappropriate activity at an inappropriate time.
In modern life, scientific and technological advances have created many facilities for comfort. However, if we develop dependency on them, our lifestyle becomes very sedentary and fragile. In order to overcome the risks involved in such a life we should observe certain precautions and engage in behaviours which promote and sustain good health.
Health is often used to refer to a state of physical, mental, social and spiritual well-being of the individual. Thus, mental health is one of the components of the broad concept of health. It is concerned with an optimum level of emotional and behavioural adjustment of the individual. It is a state of maintaining harmony or balance between the needs, desires, aspirations and attitudes of the individual with respect to the prevailing conditions in the external environment.
In order to deal with any kind of mental disorders there is a certain psychotherapeutic process used to help the individual. The person who designs psychotherapeutic program is a trained individual and is known as clinical psychologist or psychotherapist. The person who requires treatment is known as client.
While coping with the demands of stressors, the individual generally follows problem-focused or emotion-focused coping strategies. In problem-focused coping the individual uses his or her intellectual resources to deal with stressful situation and often reach an effective solution. In the case of emotion-focused coping the individual displays emotional behaviour in dealing with the stressful situation e.g. crying.
An individual becomes stressed when he or she faces obstacles in reaching the goals. This often creates conflict and frustration in the individual. A conflict becomes more stressful because of the intensity of frustration it involves. The individual generally lands in conflict when he or she faces a mutually incompatible situation.
In today’s world, stress is a very common human experience characterized by a host of physiological and psychological responses. The traditional definition of stress focuses more on the physiological response of the body. Hans Selye coined the term 'stress' defined it as a non-specific response of the body to any demand on it.